نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران
3 دانش آموخته دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
extended abstract introduction: Optimal urban management has attracted the attention of many countries around the world. This concept is rooted in liberal and post-Marxist schools and seeks to increase public participation in the city by creating a democratic atmosphere in a city, and if good governance indicators. (Justice, Accountability, Transparency, Rule of Law, Efficiency and Effectiveness) Attention to urban management will ultimately lead citizens and city officials to manage cities freely in a free space away from any ambiguity and mismanagement. Creating cities with responsible officials and citizens will be law-abiding. The purpose of this study is to compare the criteria of optimal urban management from the perspective of political schools. The research method is descriptive-analytical and the information has been collected in the form of libraries. As a result of this research, according to the comparison of the results of the views of 3 schools of urban management, it can be stated that all indicators in schools of liberalism and socialism for management It is a desirable city, Islam has pointed to it in ancient times, and even more detailed and complete attention to desirable indicators in all dimensions, which even in the form of social justice has tried to take into account the social status and income of individuals. Pay attention to the distribution of urban facilities among citizens. Therefore, fashion The desirable urban yurts from the Islamic point of view have more comprehensiveness than the previous two views.
Along with classical values such as efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, accountability, new state management values - such as employee and citizen participation in organizational management, expanding the scope of citizen choice, social justice, bureaucratic accountability and attention to ethics, decentralization and de-bureaucracy. Administrative responsibility for the effectiveness of the program and attention to the areas of social capital and trust should also be considered. This transformation has created a comprehensive change in the role of community management and the relationship between government and citizens, in the form of change from a bureaucratic and inefficient government to an entrepreneurial and participatory state. Good governance in the form of modern public administration refers to the common role and defined definition of the three public, private and civil society sectors. Accordingly, in modern public services, instead of the government acting as a facilitator and motivator of market forces (directing), it empowers citizens and creates common values among them (serving) and creates a coalition of government organizations, private organizations. And civic institutions are emphasized. Thus, the neo-regionalist perspective that emerged in the 1990s proposes governance that, instead of bulky institutional structures, on cooperation and partnership processes, the role of NGOs, including informal network structures that stem from civil society, and co-thinking and solution. Emphasizes issues with the participation of all actors.In recent years, governance has become an important issue in public and private sector management, and this is due to the important role that governance plays in determining public health. The model of governance with the characteristics of accountability, transparency and the right to comment will lead to the formation of an efficient and transparent government. Good governance stems from two major political ideologies: the neoliberal view, which recommends minimal government intervention and maximum market organization intervention, and the social democratic perspective, which seeks to recognize and exploit market efficiency in terms of social justice standards and economic recovery. It is long-term and focuses on building political and institutional infrastructure and social empowerment. These two different ideologies use the term governance with a different meaning in relation to public management (especially at the local level). The first implies the confluence of the private and public sectors in a weak partnership. In this neoliberal view, the governance of the metropolitan area seeks to shift the conflict between the interests of the private and public sectors by competing with each other to resolve local issues with a technocratic approach. In this approach, everything that is good for local businesses is good for the whole urban area. The second concept governing the term governance is the view that it sees a complex set of institutional and organizational interactions on broad issues facing social, economic, and economic adaptation in the process of the emergence of a global system. In this more institutionalist view, the vital issue is to create harmony beyond geographical scales. Western thought is currently an atheistic-liberal thought, minus religion. In such an attitude, society, politics, man, and all the values that are presented to him originate from man himself, and the creator of values is man himself (humanism).
Methodology: This research has been done with emphasis on descriptive-analytical method and collecting information as a library is the main basis of research and has tried to use the first category sources.
Results anddiscussion: Good urban governance stems from major political ideologies: the neoliberal view, which prescribes minimal government intervention and maximum market organization intervention, and the social democratic perspective, which seeks to recognize and use market efficiency in terms of social justice standards. Long-term economic recovery is based on the creation of political and institutional infrastructure and social capabilities. At the other end of the spectrum is Islam, which takes a more comprehensive look at the principles of good governance.
Conclusion: The results of this study, according to the comparison of the results of the views of 3 schools of optimal urban management, it can be stated that all the indicators presented in the schools of liberalism and socialism for optimal urban management, Islam has mentioned them in the distant past. And even more detailed and complete attention to the desired indicators in all dimensions, which even in the form of social justice has tried to pay attention to the distribution of urban facilities and facilities among citizens according to the social status and income of individuals. From the Islamic point of view, it has more comprehensiveness than the previous two views.
Keywords: Optimal Urban Management, Urban Governance, Liberal School, Social School, Islamic School