شناسایی و اولویت‌بندی راهبردهای کاهش آسیب‌پذیری نواحی شهری در برابر تهدیدات نظامی (نمونه موردی: ناحیه یک از منطقه یازده تهران)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده شهرسازی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر تهران

3 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران

4 کارشناس ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

برنامه ریزی شهری به دنبال ارتقای کیفیت زندگی ساکنان و ساختن شهری ایمن و امن برای زندگی در تمامی شرایط بویژه در زمان بحران است که راه دستیابی به این مهم از طریق شناخت اصول پدافندغیرعامل به منظور کاهش آسیب پذیری شهرها در زمان بروز تهدیدات نظامی است. بنابراین در این تحقیق عوامل موثر بر کاهش آسیب پذیری شهرها در برابر تهدیدات نظامی براساس رویکرد پدافندغیرعامل شناسایی شده و به سنجش آنها در کلانشهر تهران به عنوان پایتخت سیاسی و اقتصادی کشور پرداخته می شود. در این پژوهش از ناحیه یک منطقه 11 شهر تهران به عنوان محدوده مطالعاتی استفاده شده است. براین اساس روش مطالعه حاضر، توصیفی-تحلیلی و برای گردآوری داده‌ها از سه روش بررسی اسنادی، مشاهده میدانی و پیمایشی(توزیع پرسش‌نامه) بهره گرفته شده است. همچنین برای تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات از نرم افزار ARCGIS ، SPSS و EXPERT CHOICE استفاده شده است و از روش AHP برای وزن‌دهی شاخص های پدافندغیرعامل و از آزمون فریدمن برای اولویت‌بندی راهبردهای کاهش آسیب پذیری ناحیه مطالعاتی در مواقع بروز تهدیدات نظامی استفاده شده است. نتایج نشان میدهد که معیارهای پراکنش جمعیت (وزن:0.230)، ویژگی های کالبدی بافت و فرم (وزن:0.221) و سازگاری کاربری ها (وزن:0.147) بیشترین وزن را دربین معیارهای آسیب پذیری کسب کردند و 68 درصد از سطح نمونه مطالعاتی نیز دارای آسیب پذیری متوسط رو به بالا در برابر تهدیدات نظامی می باشد. همچنین مهمترین راهبردهای کاهش آسیب پذیری در برابر تهدیدات نظامی به ترتیب، توسعه کاربری‌های چندعملکردی در محدوده با ساماندهی کاربری‌های فرهنگی و مذهبی (W7O8)، ساماندهی و مکان‌یابی فضاهای سبز و باز در محدوده برای تعریف مراکز پشتیبان در زمان بحران (W6O5) و توجه به ایجاد فضاهای امن در محدوده (S4O4) شناسایی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying and Prioritizing the Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Urban Areas Against Military Threats (Case Study: District One in Tehran Eleventh Region)

نویسندگان [English]

  • farshad noorian 1
  • Sajad Abdullahpur 2
  • reza ghazi 3
  • Morteza Golshahi 4
1 Associate Professor of Faculty of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran.
2 M.A. Student of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Art University of Tehran.
3 M.A. Student of Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran.
4 M.A. Student of Urban Planning, University of Urmia
چکیده [English]

Identifying and Prioritizing the Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Urban Areas Against Military Threats (Case Study: District One in Tehran Eleventh Region)
Introduction
Urbanisation and the development of metropolitan centres on the one hand and their exposure to the threat of war and military attacks, on the other hand, have caused lots of damages, casualties and economic and social cost for them. Considering the strategic place of Iran in the region and the world is one of the best ways to decrease urban area vulnerabilities when at the time military threat is the passive defence. Whereas, urban land use planning plays a critical role in urban planning as far as some times urban land use planning has been called urban planning. Therefore, according to the above, urban management by using complementary approach in urban planning can decrease threats and provide safety and security for cities. Changes resulting from the concentration of economic, social, cultural and political activities in cities, as well as the lack of attention to the features of a safe and ready environment against military threats in recent decades, have decreased vulnerability of today's cities as a living environment for people to achieve Sustained urban living in times of crisis. Based on this, urban planning seeks to improve the quality of life of residents and build a safe and secure city for living in all circumstances, especially in times of crisis, which is the way to achieve this by defence the principles of non-operational defence to reduce the vulnerability of cities in times of military threats. Therefore, in this research, the factors affecting urban vulnerability to military threats are identified based on the concept of passive defence and are measured in Tehran metropolis as the capital of the country's political and economic capital. In this research, District 1, District One in Tehran's Eleventh Region has been used as a study area. District one of zone eleven of Tehran city is the case study of this research. This area has introduced as one of the main parts of city defence core in Tehran master plan, and the specific feature in this area is the wide variety of uses and function. Crucial political and administrative functions located in this area has resulted in the political and security importance of the area, and it has always been mentioned as one of the strategic parts of Tehran.
Methodology
The methodology of this research is based on explanatory-analytic study and data collection and has been done through library method and questionnaires. Also, for analysing information, ARCGIS, SPSS and EXPERT CHOICE software have been used, and the AHP method has been used to weigh out non-operational defence indicators and Friedman test to prioritise vulnerability reduction strategies in the event of military threats.The main goal of the current study is that identifying and prioritising the Strategies for Reducing the Impact of Urban Areas Against Military Threats in District One in Tehran's Eleventh Region. To these aims, first of all, a review of important terms of the research has been done and based on that, effective criteria and indicators in urban land use planning which can reduce urban vulnerability has been identified. Then, data and base map were extracted from documents and master or detailed plan of Tehran and considering the Geographic data bank related to each sub-criteria in GIS, input layer of each of them has been provided. In next step, thematic Map of vulnerability of the case study based on every sub-criteria has been mapped out and at the end of this step, all of these map has been overlaid in order to identify case study vulnerability.
Result and Conclusion
The results show that population distribution criteria (weight: 0.230), physical characteristics of the body and form (weight: 0.221), and user compatibility (weight: 0.147) obtained the highest weight among vulnerability criteria, and 68% of the sample level It has a moderate upward vulnerability to military threats. Also, the most important strategies to reduce vulnerability to military threats were, respectively, the development of multi-user applications in the area of organising cultural and religious uses (W7O8), organising and locating green and open spaces in the area for defining crisis support centres. (W6O5) And attention is given to creating safe spaces within the (S4O4) area. In addition some strategies can be useful in order to Reduce the Impact of Military Threats such as regeneration and redevelopment with emphasis on residential area which is located in north and west of the site, safe spaces development, restriction of trans-regional land uses, reduction of sensitive land uses, developing emergency land uses, eliminating incompatibility of land uses in the area, sending out the harmful land uses and developing multi-functional land uses.
The results show that population distribution criteria (weight: 0.230), physical characteristics of the body and form (weight: 0.221), and user compatibility (weight: 0.147) obtained the highest weight among vulnerability criteria, and 68% of the sample level It has a moderate upward vulnerability to military threats. Also, the most important strategies to reduce vulnerability to military threats were, respectively, the development of multi-user applications in the area of organising cultural and religious uses (W7O8), organising and locating green and open spaces in the area for defining crisis support centres. (W6O5) And attention is given to creating safe spaces within the (S4O4) area. In addition some strategies can be useful in order to Reduce the Impact of Military Threats such as regeneration and redevelopment with emphasis on residential area which is located in north and west of the site, safe spaces development, restriction of trans-regional land uses, reduction of sensitive land uses, developing emergency land uses, eliminating incompatibility of land uses in the area, sending out the harmful land uses and developing multi-functional land uses.
Keywords: passive defence, Military threats, Vulnerability zoning, District One in Tehran's Eleventh Region

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Non- Proactive defense
  • Military threats
  • Vulnerability
  • zoning
  • District One in Tehran's Eleventh Region

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 04 آبان 1399
  • تاریخ دریافت: 27 تیر 1398
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 03 آبان 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 04 آبان 1399