عنوان مقاله [English]
As in countries such as the US, the former Soviet Union, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, etc., even a country like Switzerland, which maintained neutrality during both world wars, has steadily accelerated into inertial defense. In this regard, one of the key branches that plays a major role in completing passive defense goals is the use of urban planning and its rules and principles. Passive defense is actually a reduction in financial losses and injuries sustained by civilians in war or from natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, storms, fires and droughts. Since the main focal point of user-centered operations is urban areas, cities are immediately in a state of emergency with the onset of a major incident, and the city's activities can be removed from its normal state and close to the critical state. Urban utilities, part of which are critical and critical infrastructures of the country and national capital, and other parts of the centers of production, distribution and provision of urban services such as reservoir and city water supply, city electricity facilities, telecommunication center, gas facilities, emergency fire department Etc., including public spaces in the city and region, have been less studied. So when it comes to invasion, attack, war, and natural and humanitarian crises in urban areas, there are no doubt that some uses are more important than other uses, and medical uses and hospitals must be of that type. These utilities, which are part of the city's emergency services infrastructure, not only directly affect the lives and lives of the people but also their desirable functioning and impact on the sense of security of citizens has an important impact and, if damaged, not only save The lives of injured people are at risk, but the turmoil and insecurity of the absence of such centers in the city will add to the problems of managers and officials. The city of Bukan is one of the cities that has not played a role in locating critical and sensitive uses of inactive defense considerations. The existence of such a disadvantage in designing and planning the optimal use of sensitive urban services, including health care, would be a cause of the war and would result in an increase in human casualties and turmoil. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of spatial analysis of Bukan Medical Centers with an emphasis on passive defense approach.
The method of this research is descriptive-analytical with the purpose of application. In the present study, the Krijing interpolation model and kernal density were used to map population density and heath area. Then, to show distribution pattern (cluster, random and dispersed) of health centers, the average of the nearest neighbor and finally to measure the distribution of geographical directions from standard distance and elliptical standard deviation is used. To illustrate the analysis of citizens' access to treatment cabinets, buffers with a radius of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 meters were drawn up.
Results and discussion:
The analysis of the distribution pattern of Bukan's therapeutic use by using the nearest neighbor approach shows that the distribution pattern of therapeutic use in this city is clustered. Based on the numerical results, the mean of the observed distance is 349.51314 and the mean value of the expected interval is 465.45655858; therefore, the nearest neighbor ratio is equal to 0.75102, which indicates the cluster distribution of the therapeutic use within the range is a study. The standard score is also -2.85 and its value is 0.004266, which means a cluster distribution with a confidence level of 99%. The analysis of the standard distance between the concentration level and the dispersion of the medical centers in the city of Bukan shows that the highest therapeutic use is in the center of the city, and the middle and lower marginal areas are less well-equipped than the center. Such a concentration is in conflict with the principles of passive defense and at the time of the crisis, the urban management system faces a number of challenges. In the meantime, the lack of access to residents of the outlying areas of the city resulted in these additional services and led to an increase in human casualties.
Passive defense is a non-mercenary set of measures that, in the face of any crisis, reduces the vulnerability of human resources, buildings, urban facilities and equipment and urban and regional arenas. This crisis can be natural (flood, earthquake, storm, fire and drought) or human (war). Although some experts point out that passive defense is limited to the damage caused by the war, but in this study, the concept of passive defense is a natural and human crisis. Considering that the population is an important factor in calculating per capita of major urban uses, including therapeutic use, the population density map was first drawn using the Kriging interpolation model. Results based on the Kriging model among the seven regions of Bukan showed that the primary nucleus of the city of Bukan has the highest population density and the surrounding area (the northern neighborhood of the city of Bukan) is considered to be the least congested urban area of Bukan. In a general summing up, regions of two and three components of areas with gross intermediate density, areas of four, five and seven have a high population density and areas one and six are of low population density. Due to the clustering of treatment centers, access has also been focused and this has interfered with the use of medical services. As a result of non-observance of the functional radius of the utilities, parts of the city are not covered by this function, and vice versa, areas of common coverage. For this reason, the uncovered parts cannot effectively utilize the services of the service users as well as the treatment centers.