بررسی اثرات تنوع فرهنگی در ساخت هویت شهری (نمونه موردی: منطقه 6 شهر کرج)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد برنامه ریزی شهری از موسسه آموزش عالی دهخدا

2 عضو هیات علمی گروه علوم انسانی و اجتماعی دانشگاه فرهنگیان

3 استادیار موسسه اموزش عالی علامه دهخدا

چکیده

فرهنگ، نظام واره ای از باورها و مفروضات اساسی، ارزش ها، آداب و الگوهای رفتاری ریشه دار و دیرپا، نمادها و مصنوعات است که ادراکات، رفتارها و مناسبات جامعه را جهت و شکل میدهد و هویت آن را می سازد. تضعیف و گسست فرهنگی که ناشی از تحولات اجتماعی-اقتصادی در دوره های مختلف تاریخی از جمله جنگ، مهاجرت، فقر است، ضایعه ای است که هویت اجتماعی را تهدید می کند. فرهنگ را می توان از تاریخ به عاریه گرفت، توسعه داد و غنی ساخت، اما کسب فرهنگ، به آسانی امکان پذیر نیست و آثار مثبت یا منفی آن می تواند بسیار عمیق و گسترده باشد. این در هم آمیختگی و سردرگمی ناشی از مهاجرت و گردهمایی اقوام مختلف بویژه در شهر کرج و منطقه 6 آن قابل ادراک است نمادها، باورها، ارزش ها و هنجارهای متفاوت گاها به تضاد و نزاع منجر شده و اختلاط و التقاط فرهنگی پیش آمده به علت مدیریت نامناسب به سوی از خودبیگانگی فرهنگی و هویتی در جریان خواهد یود و از گزاره تنوع فرهنگی که می تواند موجبات توسعه باشد فاصله گرفته بگیرد. هدف از این پژوهش شناخت هویت شهر همراه با تمامی جنبه‌های ذهنی آن مانند اقوام و گروه‌های اجتماعی ساکن و تنوع فرهنگی همراه با آن است. روش تحقیق کمی مبتنی بر توصیف و تحلیل و پیمایش می باشد. جهت بررسی وضعیت هویت شهر کرج منبعث از تنوع فرهنگی به تدوین پرسشنامه و اخذ نظر از ساکنین منطقه 6 با نمونه آماری 390 نفر پرداخته شد. روایی پرسشنامه توسط اساتید و پایایی آن با آزمون آلفای کرونباخ سنجیده شد. جهت سنجش همبستگی متغیرها از آزمون اسپیرمن بهره گرفته شد. در ادامه از آزمون فریدمن جهتتحلیل شاخص ها استفاده شد. نتایج حاکی از آن است که وضعیت هویتی منطقه 6 شهر کرج نامطلوب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Cultural Diversity on Urban Identity Construction (Case Study: Karaj District 6)

نویسندگان [English]

  • SARA CHERAGHI 1
  • VALIOLLAH NAZARI 2
  • fatemeh shahryar 3
1 Graduate Master of Urban Planning from Dehkhoda Institute of Higher Education
2 Member of Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Farhangian University
3 Assistant Professor of Allameh Dehkhoda Higher Education Institute
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Culture is a systematic system of basic beliefs and assumptions, values, etiquettes and patterns of rooted and long-lasting behavior, symbols and artifacts that shape and shape the perceptions, behaviors and relationships of society and make its identity. The weakening and cultural rupture that results from socio-economic developments in different historical periods, including war, migration, and poverty, is a loss that threatens social identity. Culture can be borrowed, developed, and enriched from history, but it is not easy to acquire culture, and its positive or negative effects can be very profound. This confusion caused by the migration and gathering of different ethnic groups, especially in the city of Karaj and its District 6, can be perceived. Different symbols, beliefs, values ​​and norms sometimes lead to conflict and cultural mixing due to management. Inadequate will lead to cultural alienation and identity alienation and distance from the proposition of cultural diversity that can lead to development.
The purpose of this study is to identify the identity of the city along with all its mental aspects such as ethnicity and social groups and the cultural diversity associated with it. Karaj, and consequently District 6, with such a variety of cultures, seems to have failed to achieve the desired identity.
Methodology
The present study is a quantitative one based on description and analysis and for practical purpose. This process will first begin with documentary studies examining the indicators and criteria required and developing a theoretical framework. In the next step we will examine and analyze the research position using the questionnaire tool by the citizens. After testing the hypotheses, we will provide the necessary solutions. Documentation and field method will be used for data collection. In the popular questionnaire we will use descriptive and analytical statistics. The type of analysis will depend on the type of data distribution, the population of Karaj District 6, which is about 270,000 people. Statistical sample is 390 according to Cochran formula. The sample is distributed according to the localities of District 6 and is questioned. The face validity of the questionnaire will be confirmed by the opinions of 3 experts and its reliability will be confirmed by Cronbach's alpha.
Results and discussion
In the first hypothesis (it seems that the influential cultural factors in architecture play a significant role in the construction of urban identity), the correlation between the influential cultural factors in architecture and identity with the significant level of 0.000 and the severity of the relationship 0.709 indicates a significant relationship between the two variables. Since the significance level of the test is less than 0.05, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between cultural factors influencing architecture and the dependent variable of identity. The relationship is positive and direct and high, ie, with the increase of cultural factors influencing architecture, the level of identity also increases in the sense that changes in the independent variable will cause the dependent variable to fluctuate. The assumption H1 is then confirmed.
The second hypothesis examines the relationship between identity constructs and identity effects. According to the total correlation coefficient between identity and identity effects is 0.699 and its significance level is 0.000 which indicates a direct relationship between the two variables. The direction of the relationship is positive, direct and high, since the significance level of the test is less than 0.05, so it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the amount of identity effects and identity, so the hypothesis H1 is confirmed. This hypothesis suggests that identity-building effects were able to directly influence identity variables. That is, with the increase in the effects of identity building, the identity also increases in the sense that changes in the independent variable will cause oscillations in the dependent variable.
In order to measure the level of identity with the origin of cultural diversity in Karaj District 6, three dimensions of cultural factors influencing architecture, identity effects and cultural factors influencing traditional and customs were investigated and evaluated. Friedman test was used to analyze and evaluate the data.The results show that the identity status of Karaj District 6 is undesirable.
Conclusion
One of the most important achievements of this research is the emphasis on the fact that society is not only summarized in national identity, but also has an ethnic identity that embodies values ​​and norms shared with national identity. Cultural diversity can be merged and intertwined in layers to provide a composite identity and to separate them and make it difficult and perhaps impossible. The peaceful coexistence of ethnic groups in the city of Karaj is important confirmation that one-dimensional, polar and polarized identities have changed in favor of mixed and multi-dimensional identities. All three hypotheses were tested based on the questionnaire data.
It seems that influential cultural factors in architecture have an important role in the construction of urban identity
Identification effects seem to play a significant role in the construction of urban identity
Traditional cultural factors and customs seem to play a significant role in the construction of urban identity.
But according to the Friedman test, the level of independent variables is below the average with respect to the questionnaire data and some strategies need to be considered.
At the end of the study, strategies were presented to cope with this situation. Taking advantage of Iranian, Islamic, historical and subjective signs of cultural diversity appropriate to urban spaces, utilizing identity-building effects such as elements, monuments, furniture and signs, helping to promote a sense of belonging with placement. The area of presence in urban spaces with an identity that combines cultural diversity of the region, utilizing the potential of the civic network to improve the identity of the area with the development of a culture of partnership, emphasizes a variety of neighborhoods including proposed strategies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: cultural diversity
  • Identity
  • construction
  • Customs
  • identity effects

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 13 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ دریافت: 11 دی 1398
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 13 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 13 بهمن 1399