توسعه زیست‌سازگار در جغرافیای دارای میراث طبیعی؛ نمونه مطالعاتی: روستای گردشگری ابیانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری و شهرسازی، واحد تهران مرکز، دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 گروه معماری ، واحد تهران مرکزی ، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، تهران ، ایران

4 گروه معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، تهران ، ایران

چکیده

معماری زیست سازگار را می توان معماری ای اطلاق کرد که نسبت به ویژگی ها و شرایط محیطی و مکانی پاسخی معقول داشته و از ویژگی های بستر خود در جهت ایجاد شرایط محیطی مطلوب استفاده بهینه نموده و کمترین صدمات را به محیط زیست وارد می کند. هدف از تحقیق حاضر بررسی ارتباط بنیادی مابین دو صنعت عظیم معماری و گردشگری و ارائه راهکارهایی با استفاده از مولفه های موجود در معماری زیست سازگار، به منظور ارتقاء صنعت اکوتوریسم و بطور خاص در روستای ابیانه می باشد. در پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش پیمایشی، توصیفی- تحلیلی و با بهره گیری از مطالعات میدانی و با استفاده از مدل تحلیلیSWOT و فرآیند تحلیل شبکه ای ANP)) که یکی از ابزارهای استراتژیک تطابق نقاط قوت و ضعف درون سیستمی با فرصت ها و تهدیدات برون سیستمی است استفاده شده و به بررسی پتانسیلها و قابلیت های اکوتوریستی روستای ابیانه به گونه ای علمی، همراه با رعایت مسایل زیست محیطی و مبانی زیست سازگار پرداخته شده است و در نهایت به ارائه راهکارهایی برای حرکت در راستای توسعه پایدار ناحیه ای پرداخته شده است. جامعه آماری مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش را سه گروه اصلی مردم ، گردشگران و مسئولان تشکیل می دهند که از روش نمونه گیری کوکران به جهت بررسی آن استفاده شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که معماری در سطح برنامه ریزی گردشگری می تواند ارتباط وسیعی با رشد و توسعه گردشگری در سطح ملی و در هر منطقه ای که خواهان توسعه گردشگری است ، داشته باشد. همچنین معماری و گردشگری به عنوان دو صنعت گسترده در زندگی امروز نقش بسزایی در توسعه و تکامل هم داشته و بر یکدیگر تاثیر گذارند. در واقع با استفاده از مولفه های معماری زیست سازگار و دوست دار طبیعت می توان به ارتقای صنعت اکوتوریسم رونق بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Biophilic Development in Natural-Heritage-Intensive Geography; Case Study: Abyaneh

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdieh Zolfaghari 1
  • Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad 2
  • Behrooz Mansoori 3
  • Mojtaba Ansari 4
1 Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Central Tehran Branch. Islamic Azad University,
2 Tarbiat Modares University
3 Department of Architecture , Faculty of Art and Architecture , Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4 , Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
One of the most controversial issues in the development of the natural-heritage-intensive sites is the challenge of conservation and development; on the one hand, development should boost the local economy, on the other hand, it should take care of nature and the environment. One of the most important solutions proposed to preserve human geography and convince local people to continue living in their homeland, is tourism industry. This issue makes the need to build new places and infrastructure more serious. Biophilic architecture and urban planning have been considered as an intelligent response to the impact of the development projects in the context.
The purpose of this study is to explain the impacts of the biophilic architecture in the prosperity of tourism and the economic, social and environmental development consequently. The concept is going to be discussed in the framework of the high-performance architecture theory in the historical village of Abyaneh as the case study. In the present study, the ecotourism potentials and capabilities of Abyaneh village have been studied scientifically, along with environmental issues and biocompatible principles, and finally, solutions to move towards sustainable regional development have been presented.
Methodology
In the research, the survey method is descriptive-analytical, using field studies, and based on the SWOT analytical model and network analysis process (ANP). The statistical population in this study consists of three main groups including local citizens, tourists and authorities. The Cochran's method has been used to determine the population and sample size, which has been selected 130 for people, 100 for tourists and 25 for officials. The results of constructing the SWOT matrix show the accepted strategy and model for reviewing scores and prioritizing them. The set of points and criteria that were considered for the development of tourism in the region has been designed in the form of a questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed among ordinary people, tourists, as well as officials and managers of organizations responsible for the tourism sector for weighting and prioritizing importance. In the SWOT model, the numerical weighting method is used to achieve the final results. In the mentioned method, the study area is divided into similar sections according to the area and in each section; items such as strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities and their related factors are identified. By weighting each of these factors, the relative position of each part is clarified. Then, according to the obtained scores, each factor is classified and finally, the sum of their means and weights is placed as an indicator for ranking. The weight scores of all external components are summarized in a column, and then according to they have reviewed the overall score of that system.
Results and discussion
The present study is at four levels that include factors and sub-factors, goals and alternatives. In fact, the goal of the problem is to achieve the most appropriate strategy and criteria for the problem of matrix factors, which include strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats, are included in the subset of matrix factors. After analyzing the results of calculations related to each of the existing strategies, it was found that investing and planning tourism in historical and cultural sites and paying special attention to the specific customs of the region, paying attention to better access to the region and identifying unique attractions.
The tourist in terms of the type of buildings, architecture and texture of the region to increase tourism in the region as the first strategy with a value of 0.34 and respectively planning, design, development and equipping the natural potential of the region to create artificial attractions and Man-made in line with the natural attractions of the environment as well as increasing the use of specialized, experienced and trained forces in the ecotourism sector along with tourist areas with a second rank and a value of 0.26 and educating residents on how to deal with tourists, increase facilities, facilities and Accommodation and welfare equipment and efforts to resolve the cultural conflict between tourists and indigenous people with a third rank and a value of 0.20 and protect the environment and prevent undesirable use of natural and historical attractions and their destruction, protect the destruction of vegetation in the region And reducing water and soil pollution in the tourism and total area These specialized and experienced manpower in the staff and increase efficiency in tourism planning management with the fourth rank and a value equal to 0.17 in terms of weight importance and in order to decide the implementation of the mentioned strategies are in the next ranks.



Conclusion
One of the most controversial issues in villages with valuable heritage, in the natural context, is the challenge of conservation and development; On the one hand, development should boost the local economy, on the other hand, it should take care of nature and the environment. One of the most important solutions proposed to preserve human geography and convince local people to continue living is the prosperity of the tourism industry; this issue makes the need to build new places and infrastructure more serious. Biocompatible architecture and urban planning have been considered as an intelligent response to the impact of the implementation of development projects in the context of human and natural geography. The purpose of this study is to explain the impact of the trend towards biocompatible architecture in the prosperity of natural tourism and thus the development of economic, social and environmental indicators; the concept that excels in the framework of architectural theory is discussed in the example of the historical village of Abyaneh.
The achievements of the research show that the emphasis on the natural potentials and ecotourism capabilities of Abyaneh village in a scientific way, along with the observance of environmental issues and the principles of sustainable development; might be called as the best option to outline the development projects in this area. In other words, to promote the tourism industry, the biophilic development can be recommended that focuses on sustainability, the environment, energy efficiency, water preservation and hidden energy; while increasing the number of tourists.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biophilic Architecture
  • Biocompatible Development
  • tourism industry
  • Ecotourism
  • Abyaneh

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 25 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ دریافت: 15 مهر 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 25 بهمن 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 25 بهمن 1399