نقش شهرهای جهانی در نظام جهانی با تأکید بر اندیشۀ جان رنه شورت و پیتر تیلور

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانش ‏آموختة دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

هدف از مقالة حاضر برجسته ‏کردن نقش «شهرهای جهانی» است. امروزه، به‏ واسطۀ افزایش نقش سیاسی و استراتژیک شهرها، «شهرهای جهانی» به کانون‏ مطالعات در جغرافیای سیاسی تبدیل شده ‏اند و به‏ عنوان بازیگران اساسی در نظام بین ‏الملل به ایفای نقش می‏ پردازند. اما اینکه چگونه پدیدة شهر از نگاه جغرافی‏دانان سیاسی مورد مطالعه قرار می ‏گیرد پرسشی است که مقالة حاضر همراه با تحلیل نظریه‏ ها و دیدگاه ‏های دو تن از برجسته‏ ترین جغرافی‏دانان سیاسی‏  که در تحقیقات خود به تعریف و نقش شهرهای جهانی (با تأکید بر ابعاد سیاسی فضای‏ شهری و اقتصاد شهری تمرکز یافته‏ اند)‏ پرداخته‏ اند‏ـ درصدد پاسخ به آن است. نتایج این تحقیق با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی نشان می ‏دهد پدیدة شهر از سوی جغرافی‏دانان سیاسی با تأکید بر عناصر محوری سه‏ گانة فضا، سیاست، و قدرت مطالعه و بررسی می ‏شود. به اعتقاد جان رنه شورت، بیش از آنکه الگویی از رقابت بین جهان‏ شهرها را برای سلطه بر جهان در ذهن آوریم، دقیق ‏تر آن است که شبکه ‏ای از جهان ‏شهرها را مورد توجه قرار دهیم که در آن نظارت و سلطة اقتصادی فقط در چند شهر متمرکز است. همچنین، پیتر تیلور شهرهای جهانی را با توجه به ماهیت سیال و متحرک قدرت بین شهرهای جهانی و اینکه آن‏ها چگونه با توجه به ایدئولوژی (مقیاس ملی) و اقتصاد جهانی درون نظام جهانی تعامل برقرار می‏کنند، در رویکردی کل‏نگر، بررسی می‏ کند. بنابراین، شهرهای جهانی، در نقش بازیگران رقابت‏ کننده در جهان، معرف جایگاه و نقش دولت- ملت ‏ها در روند توسعة تعاملات و مناسبات در ابعاد سه‏گانة اقتصاد، سیاست، و فرهنگ هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The role of global cities within the world system, with emphasis on the thought of John Rene Short and Peter Taylor

نویسنده [English]

  • Najes Hosseini
Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
-Introduction, In today's world, "cities" are the main focus of events, actions and reactions, and all kinds of relationships, economic, political, cultural, social, and physical relations. Political geographers focus more on the political dimension of urban space, citizens, local government, urban economics, and major cities / world cities. But how the phenomenon of the city is studied from the point of view of the political geographers is a question that the present article deals with analyzing the theories and views of two of the most prominent geographers of politics. The results of this research by descriptive-analytical method show that the phenomenon of the city is studied by political geographers with emphasis on the triple axis of space, politics and economics. For example, according to John Rene Shorth, rather than pointing out a pattern of competition between the world of cities for global domination, it is more accurate to look at a network of cities in which control and economic domination only In a few cities is focused. Also, Peter Taylor prefers to take global cities in line with the fluidity of power between the world's cities and how they interact with both the scale of ideology (government) and the scale of reality (global economy) within the global system. Holistic. Therefore, the city as a modern phenomenon represents the position and role of nation-states in the development of economic and political interactions and relations. Today, by designing new patterns and working strategies for organizing urban space and increasing the political and strategic role of cities, cities have become the focus of studies in political geography.
-Methodology, This research is of fundamental and theoretical type and the method of information analysis is also descriptive-analytic based on qualitative methodology. The method of data collection is documentary and library. In this regard, in order to arrive at a clear and consistent conclusion based on rational deduction, it attempts to explain the political geography of the city, especially from the point of view of the famous two political geographers, René Short and Taylor. Therefore, this research, by applying the main variables, such as the phenomenon of city, globalization and politics, seeks to achieve a generalized conclusion about urban geography.
-Result and discussion,
1- The city is a social and spatial unit in which politics and power are closely linked. In fact, urban and urban collections are the realm of public policy
2- World cities are the connecting points that act as monitoring centers. This oversight of the cluster is dependent on the flow of information and finances and the cultural flow. In addition, world cities are considered as the interface between local and global space
3- From the viewpoint of geographers, humans played a significant role in creating a city and its urbanization. From the mid-1960s until the mid-1970s (the period of political geopolitical retrieval), with the spatial-political approach, urban politics was one of the things that attracted the attention of political geographers (such as Richard Moire, Peter Tyler, John Rennes, and so on) They made But from the mid-1990s to the present day, specialized approaches such as urban political geography entered the field of geopolitics, and many geographers worked on providing expert opinions and opinions.
4- Considering the importance of the city as a spatial-political phenomenon, it refers to the theory of two renowned political geographers, René Short and Taylor, about the city....
5- John Renne Short states that despite the dispersion over the past thirty years, a large share of command functions is still concentrated in just a few cities, and also, instead of drawing a pattern of competition between the world of cities to dominate the world, More precisely, to focus on a network of cities in which economic moni- toring and domination are concentrated only in a few cities, the non-urban location is largely a reflection of poverty.
6- Taylor believes that three global, national, and urban scales are important scales in which global economies are pivotal. . In general, the main attraction of Taylor's urban studies is that it overcomes this and will definitely put urban affairs into the development of the era of global capitalism.
Conclusion
 The philosophy of the "city" in the study of the geopolitical area is due to the interaction of "politics" and "space" in the spatial area of ​​the city, and this mechanism can be expressed in two aspects:
1. The city's influence on national, local, regional and international policies.
2. The impacts of political decisions of policymakers related to cities, including governmental and non-governmental institutions, on the urban environment.
 The city is a social and spatial unit in which politics and power are closely linked. In fact, the city and the urban complex; the realm of politics is public.
Also, the city can be considered a set of interconnected economic, social and cultural factors, and related to politics and power.
In the twenty-first century, cities are the focal points of global power; they control the events on a variety of geographic scales. In this regard, political geographers emphasize on issues such as: the political dimension of urban space, citizens, local government, the organization, and the urban economy and world cities. Taylor and René Short, as two of the most famous contemporary political geographers, have made important comments and analyzes of the city with an emphasis on globalization and economics. Cities are the bedrock of the formation of political and civil institutions, and an integral part of the process of modernization and socio-economic development; it is the main focus of events, actions, reactions, and types of economic, political, cultural, social and physical relations. They can.
He states that despite the dispersion over the past thirty years, a large share of the command functions is still concentrated in just a few cities. Taylor believes that three global, national, and urban scales are important scales in which global economies are pivotal. . In general, the main attraction of Taylor's urban studies is that it overcomes this and will definitely put urban affairs into the development of the era of global capitalism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • political geography
  • city
  • John Rennes shorts
  • Peter Taylor
  • Globalization
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