تحلیل تصادفات جاد ه ای با تاکید بر خصوصیات محیط و جاده در سیستم اطلاعات مکانی (مطالعه موردی: محور کرج –کندوان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی عمران - سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی رامسر

2 استادیار گروه عمران موسسه آموزش عالی رحمان رامسر

چکیده

 این مقاله به تحلیل توزیع مکانی و احتمال وقوع تصادفات جاده ای  و عوامل موثر بر آنها بویژه دو عامل محیط و جاده در سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی میپردازد. منطقه مورد مطالعه محور کرج - کندوان از محورهای کوهستانی ارتباطی تهران -شمال میباشد. با استفاده از روش سلسله مراتبی درخت تصمیم گیری این پژوهش در چند مرحله انجام گرفت. در مرحله اول منابع موجود مطالعه و نقاط تصادف جمع آوری شدند. در مرحله دوم اصلاح نقاط صورت پذیرفت و نقاط نسبت به مبدا جمع آوری اطلاعات توجیه و به صورت کیلومتر پیاده سازی شدند. در مرحله سوم  اطلاعات مربوط به شیب جاده، درجه انحنل، نقاط تقاطع، درصد تراکم، اقلیم و کاربری اطراف منطقه مورد مطالعه جمع آوری و سپس لایه­های اطلاعاتی ایجاد، آماده سازی و استاندارد گردید. در مرحله بعد، لایه های استاندارد شده توسط مدل درخت تصمیم و درخت تصمیم وزن دار پردازش و ترسیم گردید. سپس با تلفیق لایه ها نقشه احتمال وقوع تصادف در محدوده مطالعاتی تهیه شد. نتایج مطالعات نشان داد که مهمترین عامل موثر در وقوع تصادف با توجه به تحلیل انجام شده، متغیر انحنا میباشد و متغیرهای  تقاطع، اقلیم، تراکم و شیب در اولویتهای بعدی قرار دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of road accidents with emphasis on environmental and road characteristics in geospatial information system Case study of Karaj-Kandovan axis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Kalantari 1
  • Sahar Alian 2
1 Master student of Civil Engineering-GIS, Islamic Azad University of Ramsar, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering Department, Rahman Institute of Higher Education, Ramsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Road traffic accidents are considered as one of the most important causes of human death in all over the world and in our country Iran. The increase of daily travels and traffic volume are the key factors of high number of traffic accidens in Iran. In a road transportation system, human behaviour, road and vehicle are the main contributing factors in traffic accidents. While human errors relating to driver performance are the cause of almost 50 to 95% of crashes, road and environmnal factors in different locations and times of driving may also affect driver performance and increase the risk of a crash. Identification of road hotspots is a geographical decision. GIS offer both spatial and temporal dimensions required for data preparation, spatial analysis, decision making and management of road crashes.
The main objective of this research is the spatial analysis of casualty crashes and prioritization the available risk factors that contribute in crash incidence. The stady ares, is a part of Karaj-Chalous road, a main mountainous road connecting Karaj to North of Iran.
In doing so, in a GIS contex, a decision tree method is used for crash analysis. The decision tree is a hierarchical knowledge structure that represents a sequence of decision rules. The purpose of the method is to determine which attribute or criterion of attributes provides the best distribution of the actual data set regardless of the value of the given attribute. According to the objective of the research, this research method was conducted in several stages. Firstly, available sources and previouse similar studies were reviewd, and the accident data points were collected. Secondly, the points were corrected based on the collected data source and judtified and implemented in kilometers. Thirdly, information about the slope and climate of the area, the intersections and used points around the study area were collected and the required layers were prepared and standardised. Next, prepared and standardized layers were processed and drawn by the decision tree model and weighted decision tree model. Then the prepared layers were combined and the resulting output probability map of the accidents along the study area was prepared.
The results of studies showed that, according to the analysis, the most important effective factor in the occurrence of accidents is: curvature with a coefficient of 0.51. After that, the intersection layer with the coefficient of 0.21, and climate with the coefficient of 0.144 are the second and third factors respectively. Other variables such as density and slope are the next available probabibility factors of crash incidence in the study area. Based on the coefficients, a zoning map of the probability of accidents was prepared. The prepared map shows the high intensity of the probability of a crash in selected points. According to the obtained map, the highest risk area is at the entrance to the road and at points of intersection where the curvature of the road increases.
The results of this research and prioritization of the crash risk factors in decreasing the costs of road safety improvement.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Road Accidents
  • Desition Tree
  • GIS
  • Kandavan

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 02 اسفند 1399
  • تاریخ دریافت: 16 آذر 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 02 اسفند 1399
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 02 اسفند 1399