عنوان مقاله [English]
Architecture and urban planning are usually in repair with the existing environment, but in the contemporary era, due to the increase in population and the uncontrolled growth of disciplined cities, this repair created a combination of cities with different faces and disproportionate to the information environment. Generally, attention should be paid to the architectural context to increase housing satisfaction and to increase the quality of housing. But the principles of contextualism and its relation to the types of residential complexes are ignored and this has also reduced the quality of the residential complexes. In the other words, dissatisfaction can be caused by a lack of proper communication between buildings and their context and also, and lead to issues such as unrest, disarray, identity crises, and disadvantages in residential complexes. In our country too, many buildings are designed without regard to the texture and factors affecting their urban context and the result is nothing but achieving an uncoordinated system in the physical landscape of urban space. The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of residential complex species on contextualism and its results are in real use in the construction of the country.
The aim is to analyze the impact of residential complex species on contextualism and its results are in real use in the construction of the country. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of nature and method. The statistical population of the study was inhabitants of these residential complexes with 150 statistical samples (15 out of every 10 residential complexes) selected randomly based on the Cochran formula. Also, by reviewing theoretical foundations in the field of contextualism and residential complexes, four physical, historical, cultural, and natural contexts as well as five linear, dispersed, centralized, environmental and abrasive species were identified as constituent elements. The research method is descriptive-analytic through the questionnaire survey and the hypothesis was examined by regression test in Spss.
Results and discussion
Regarding the effect of individual factors on the dimensions of contextualism in different types of residential complexes, the results showed that, with time and increasing age, the average degree of contextualism increases. The average cultural background is higher in men than women, but the average physical background is higher in women than men. Examination of the results of regression test shows that in the environmental species (Fateh and Chamran), the highest impact on contextualism includes the natural context of 0.544 and the lowest of the cultural context with a coefficient of 0.332. In the scattered species (Fajr and Sattar Khan), the highest impact on contextualism includes the natural context of 0.548 and the lowest level of cultural context with a coefficient of 0.344. In the linear species (Golpark and Pardis), the highest impact on contextualism includes the natural background of 0.532 and the lowest rate of historical context with a coefficient of 0.355; In the overblock species (Irdac and Tavos), the highest impact on contextualism includes the natural background of 0.540 and the lowest of the physical background with a coefficient of 0.355, and in the concentrated species (Sepidar and Zomorod), the highest impact on Contextualism includes the historical context of 0.476 and the lowest value of the cultural context with a coefficient of 0.303. In general, the highest impact on contextualism includes the natural context with a coefficient of 0.487 and the lowest related to the cultural context with a coefficient of 0.250, among which the greatest impact on the physical context includes readability of 0.348; The maximum impact on the historical context includes historical monuments as much as 0.404; The greatest impact on the cultural context includes coordination as 0.423 and the greatest impact on the natural context includes the environment as 0.732.
The results of regression showed that the greatest influence on contextualism is the natural context and the least related to the cultural context. Regarding β coefficients, in the Peripheral, Scattered, linear and giant bloc's species the most influence is related to the natural field and the most concentrated species is to the historical context and in the concentrated bloc, most of it relates to the historical context. Mean values showed that the highest mean of physical and cultural fields in concentrated species and the highest average of historical and natural fields in Giant species. Path model analysis showed that the impact of Peripheral species and historical dimension on contextualism is greater. Therefore, when designing residential complexes, historical context, especially identity, should be considered more than other components. The findings of this article are in some cases consistent with previous studies on the relationship and impact of different dimensions of contextualism on the types of residential complexes and confirm it. For example, Sharifian and Jahanian (2013), state that in contextualist design, in addition to Paying attention to the physical dimensions of the building bed, referring to the underlying cultural dimensions is also necessary. Rapaport emphasizes that form makes sense in cultural contexts and, accordingly, suggests a kind of interaction between man and the environment that should be considered in the design of contextual architecture, and especially in the construction of housing, as well as Ghanbari and Yeganeh. (2015), stated that designers should pay attention to the context and use their creativity and architectural ability to try to improve the physical quality of the context, so according to research findings, it is recommended that when designing residential complexes historical context (historic buildings, The identity of places and collective memories, the continuity of urban space, past principles and indigenous originality) should be considered by architects and urban planners more than other fields. Also, in the historical field, the need to pay attention to place identity is more important than other dimensions.