عنوان مقاله [English]
The tourism industry is an all-encompassing and vast global industry that can be called one of the largest industries in the world, and all countries have appropriate tourism capacities in accordance with their environmental conditions, historical monuments, civilization, and cultural heritage. Iran, as one of the oldest countries due to its geographical, religious, cultural, and social conditions, has excellent tourism potential.
Due to the high potential of the tourism industry in creating wealth and job creation, it has attracted entrepreneurs in this field today. Tourism has always been closely related to entrepreneurship. Industrial tourism is the country that earns the most income and employment with the least capital because everything, including ancient and natural monuments and places for this work, exists in most parts of the country. On the other hand, for every tourist entering the country, at least 5 jobs are created, and the employment rate of the tourism sector is 11.2 times faster than other sectors. Another critical issue is sustainable urban development. There is a wealth of evidence to suggest that the expansion of tourism activities plays a significant role in promoting sustainable urban development. Tourism is about the number of travelers, employment, and revenue. Also, tourism is doubly important because of how its sustainability is affected by the environment. On the other hand, at present, cities are among the most visited areas in the world and receive millions of tourists every year. Urban tourism has become one of the most important economic activities today.
In the studies that have been done on entrepreneurship in tourism, there is also this research gap where the impact of various entrepreneurial investments on the development of the tourism industry has yet to be seriously evaluated. Therefore, to explain in detail how entrepreneurial capital affects tourism development, the impact of each proposed capital on entrepreneurship should be examined. Finally, it is necessary to evaluate the potential effects of tourism expansion on urban development.
The present study is a causal-correlational research method. The statistical population of this research is 532 managers of entrepreneurial companies in the field of tourism in Mazandaran province. This study used Cochran's formula to calculate the sample size. Thus, a sample of 224 people was selected by simple random sampling. A library method was used to collect information in the theoretical dimension, and a questionnaire was administered to answer the questions and test the hypotheses. The questionnaire was distributed among 224 managers of entrepreneurial companies in the field of tourism in Mazandaran province. The standard questionnaire is related to the article by Kim et al. in 2020 and includes all the questions related to the research variables. Professors and experts approved the questionnaire, and underwent localization before being distributed.
Results and discussion
Path coefficient values for financial capital and development of the tourism industry equal (0.24), social capital and development of the tourism industry equal (0.38), human capital and development of the tourism industry equal (0.26), and intellectual capital for the development of the tourism industry equal 0.41. The coefficient of the development path of the tourism industry on urban development is equal to 0.66, and these results indicate the positive impact of variables.
All research hypotheses that confirmed the impact of the variables of financial capital, social capital, human capital, and intellectual capital on the tourism industry and urban development were confirmed. Entrepreneurial companies in the field of tourism can use the results of this research to develop the tourism and urban industries. The results of the hypotheses were analyzed based on significant statistics, and if they are not in the range of +1.96 and -1.96, they will be accepted.
In general, the results showed that different dimensions of human capital, including human, intellectual, social, and financial capital, significantly impact tourism development. Therefore, tourism stakeholders and managers should focus on these components in tourism development programs to develop an appropriate strategy. On the other hand, the results obtained in this study indicate the impact of tourism on urban development. This finding can also have managerial applications. This means that city managers can use the potential of tourism to develop cities and, in this regard, provide the necessary grounds for the expansion and development of tourism. Based on the results of the first hypothesis, it is recommended that institutions such as municipalities or governorates provide financial facilities in the form of loans to companies active in the field of tourism in the province to provide the necessary ground for the growth and development of such companies. According to the results of the second hypothesis, organizations such as the provincial radio and television and other media must promote the culture of hospitality and provide the necessary training to citizens to provide the conditions in such a way that the presence of tourists in the province creates a good image and memorable experience.
Based on the third hypothesis, managers of tourism companies are recommended to use people with sufficient education and knowledge concerning various aspects of tourism when hiring labor. Also, in choosing guides, it is necessary to pay attention to issues such as familiarity with natural attractions, ethics, mastery of foreign languages, etc., of managers of tourism companies.
In relation to the result obtained in the fourth hypothesis, it is suggested that improving the quality of tourism services in terms of accommodation, hospitality, etc., can also play an effective role in improving the brand image of tourism companies.
Based on the results of the fifth hypothesis, it is recommended that provincial officials and institutions, including the governorate, city council, municipality, etc., put tourism development on the agenda as an approach to sustainable urban development.
There is no funding support.
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.