عنوان مقاله [English]
Urbanization is considered a global phenomenon that has expanded dramatically in the last century and has increased inequalities and injustices in the lives of city dwellers, as a result of which their access to urban infrastructures and services has faced a serious problem. Therefore, in urban planning, one of the important issues that has gained special importance is the proper distribution of urban uses, and in other words, spatial justice. In this regard, urban uses and services are among the factors that can establish the dimensions of spatial justice and social justice more equitably by responding to population needs and paying attention to the merits and competences of individuals. Therefore, the inappropriate distribution of urban uses and services, in addition to causing population disturbance and imbalance in the city, also distances urban spaces from any social and economic justice. For this reason, in developing countries, especially in urban areas, more than in any other period, they need to emphasize establishing spatial justice in the optimal enjoyment of various urban services. Spatial justice can be defined as the intersection of space and social justice, which includes the fair distribution of valuable resources and opportunities in society. Therefore, we can consider spatial justice as the main approach and equality perspectives in analyzing the distribution of urban services, an inevitable necessity in urban studies. Hence, in order to improve the environmental conditions of cities and reduce the effects of inequality, the spatial distribution of services at the level of cities and the need for proper access to these services is necessary. So, spatial justice is one of the important and discussed topics in cities, which, if established, will provide citizens' satisfaction and life with comfort and peace. Thus, this research aims to analyze the distribution of urban public services with an emphasis on spatial justice in the neighborhoods of the District 5 of Rasht.
The current research has been carried out as a practical and descriptive-analytical study in terms of targeting and methodology, respectively. The statistical population of the research is 11 neighborhoods of District 5 of Rasht, which library studies (study of documents, statistics and detailed master plan) were used to collect data, and the indicators used are urban uses and services. According to the operational field of the research, i.e. the spatial level of the urban neighborhood, indicators whose functional range was at the neighborhood level were selected; In other words, indicators whose spatial performance radius is outside the neighborhood level, such as the airport, railway, specialized hospital, etc., have been left out of the measurement circle due to the lack of universality of the need at the neighborhood level. Therefore, 7 indicators were selected for review and ranking in all 11 neighborhoods of District 5 of Rasht. In this research, using the COCOSO method, each locality was ranked according to the availability of urban services (commercial-administrative-educational-medical, health-park, green space-sports-equipment, and urban facilities). Using the MABAC method, each of the research uses at the regional level was evaluated and ranked. Excel and Gis software programs have also been exerted to analyze and draw maps and the spatial distribution of services.
Results and discussion
In order to obtain and better understand the situation and determine the priority of urban development among the neighborhoods of the five cities of Rasht, based on the ranking obtained from the COCOSO model and in terms of having the studied indicators, they are classified into 4 levels as low-privileged, semi-privileged, well-privileged, and very well-privileged. In the meantime, District 3 with the highest score of 18.975, is in the first place, and Districts 9 and 8 are ranked second and third with scores of 13.834 and 262.7, respectively. On the other hand, District 5 has the last rank, with the lowest score of 1.049. Statistically, the results show that 19% of the 11 neighborhoods of the five cities of Rasht are very well-off, 27% are well-off, 27% are half-off, and 27% are low-off. The following, in order to better examine and compare the position of urban services uses, based on the MABAK technique, results showed that the use of parks and green spaces in the five cities of Rasht, with the highest score of 0.485, was in the first place, the educational use ranked second with 0.199, and administrative ranked third with 0.134 points.
In today's society, the problems caused by the improper distribution of urban public services have made this issue one of the most important issues facing most developed and developing countries. For this reason, in most cities of Iran, including Rasht, the inappropriate distribution of urban services has been very worrying. So far, the biggest concern of city officials and managers has been the provision of urban services in the city, and less attention has been paid to its proper distribution. The final results of the COCOSO model showed that the residents of District 5 of Rasht city do not have equal access to urban services and facilities, which indicates an unbalanced distribution of services and facilities at the level of the districts of this area of the city. Therefore, allocating urban uses and services needed by localities, especially low-privileged localities such as Qala Sera, University and Gil Village, in order to improve the quality of life of citizens and their satisfaction, is an important and necessary topic, which with the concept and criteria of spatial and social justice as one of the needs The basis of today's society is directly related. Thus, it is necessary to increase the per capita amount of uses that are not in good condition in terms of per capita amount, such as commercial, healthcare, equipment and facilities, and sports, to reach the desired level and close to the standard per capita.