1 دانشجوی دوره دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
3 استاد گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Metropolitan’s high development in the world beside population grows in the megacities causes many troubles, such as traffic and urban transportation problems. These problems have been one of significant urban challenges in the end of twenty century. Usually, urban transportation is one of the principal and significant elements of urban system that supplies the accessibility and mobility needs of citizens in different areas. Rapid increases of vehicles especially personal cars and enormous use of them in Iranian cities especially in Tehran metropolis with high grows of population and without a scientific and comprehensive planning have made many troubles. These problem increase with the raise intensive environmental pollutions, congestion of traffic, time consuming of citizens, much consumption of fuel, no security of roads and so on. These problems also decrease public welfare and public health in Tehran. Therefore, urban transportation and traffic issue and its problems are one of the most important challenges for citizens, urban authorities, and municipality of Tehran.
Today, one of the solution upon to these problems is development and promotion of public transportation that implements in many cities in all of the world. Rapid public transportation systems from rail to rubber-tired systems are one of the most common solutions. Municipality of Tehran term solution) to address these problems and improve public transportation.
Different communities have adopted many public transportation initiatives ranging from light rail regular bus transit across their countries to address a variety of issues ranging from environmental awarness to the desire for alternatives to improve highways and urban sprawl. These concerns have led to a re-examination of existing transit technologies and the embrace of new creative ways of providing transit services. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be an extremely cost-effective way of providing high-quality, and high-performance transit.
Bus Rapid Transit makes bus to move people almost as quickly and efficiently as a subway system, with a much lower cost. BRT uses dedicated lanes on existing streets, and doesn’t require the construction of rails or tunnels. A new BRT line can therefore be put in place much more quickly and cheaply than a new subway line.
Recently Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is successfully adopted by many major cities across the world including United States of America, and grabbing the attention of numerous communities towards this system of public transit which combines flexible service with advanced technologies. BRT is a rapid mode of transportation that can combine the quality of rail transit and the flexibility of buses. These systems use new electronic technologies, vehicle design, transit operation principles, and marketing techniques.
This paper is based on fieldwork studies and descriptive-analytic methods that investigates infrastructural factors of BRT and it is evaluated its function in Tehran metropolis. The overall qualitative, and quantitative benefits of the BRT are evaluated in this study. Through literature reviews, the elements and indicators that effect the performance of BRT are identified. Our statistical data in this research was BRT passengers and consumers in Tehran metropolis. Around 300 passengers are chosen randomly for a sample survey to contact analysis for this paper, and SPSS software tests also used to complete this study.
Results and discussion
The BRT system is tested and implement in Tehran to processes the analytical performances. In this article first line (Azadi-TEhranpars) of BRT system in Tehran metropolis is chosen as the study area, and various sets of data are analyzed to compete this study.
Our research indicates that BRT in Tehran has many benefits and advantages. Decrease of travel time (33 minute in first line route), movement of population increases (250 percent), reduction of stay time in station, high speed specially in compare with traditional bus system, increase of passengers security, comparing to othe passenger systems specially with private automobiles and taxes are some of the advantages which can consider.
This paper shows that BRT system has positive effects on public transportation in Tehran metropolis. This system has positive environmental, economical and social impact in Tehran city. Considering public satisfaction of the BRT is very high. Therefore, with regard to chosen indicators, BRT is a efficient, suitable, and desirable system in Tehran that its public satisfaction is very high and most passengers are using this services everyday.