1 مربی گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد زابل
2 استاد دانشکدۀ جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Rural poverty, as a result of pressure on natural resources, and unsustainable as well as non-standard use of these resources, leads to an intensification of environment destruction. Additionally, environmental crises intensify the villagers' poverty through the exhaustion and destruction of resources used by them. In the present article the aim is considering the role of economic poverty of rural residents in destruction of environment in The Surveyed Pasture of Shoorrood In Shibab District of the Zabol Township.
The method of this research is applied based on the objective. Data are collected via library searches and field study. In the study the means for collecting information is questionnaire and the statistic unit is the head of the family (rural exploiter). The Shib-ab district consisting of 8547.4 square kilometers is located in the north-west of Zabol Township in Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran. The total area of Sistan’s rural regions is 547459 hectares, and the total area of Shibab’s ones is 369666 hectares which consist of 328526 hectares of surveyed pastures and 41140 hectares are non-surveyed pastures. The surveyed pastures of Shib-ab district in Zabol Township have 7 usage orders which have been studied using the simple accidental method of the Shoorrood surveyed pasture. The Shoorrood pasture with an expansion of 7500 hectares and a 475-meter altitude from sea level is one of the surveyed pastures of Zabol’s Shibab district.
Results and Discussion
For this reason the effect ion of both direct and indirect function of human on environment (pasture) destruction resulted from rural exploiters' social and economic poverty have been considered.
On the formal report of statistic center of Iranian, the average of Iran families' Per capita income in urban centers is 7000$ and in rural centers is 4800$, but the average of rural family’s per capita income in Sistan-Baluchestan province is 3100$. The average of rural families' annual income in the Surveyed Pasture of Shoorrood (Shib-ab district) is 700$. Therefore, there is a distinct difference between the surveyed villages’ per capita income with other villages of Sistan and Baluchestan and the average of village’s per capita income the in the country. Pure dependence of rural exploiters and their families on the stockbreeding activities (non programming from government for creating job opportunities in the area resulted in none accessing of the exploiters and their families to the job opportunities), and none existing the variety of economic activities (because of periodical dryness in Sistan and Baluchestan and stagnation of agricultural activities ) show that rural exploiters and their families are the poorest inhabitants in Iran in terms of economic.
About 95% of rural households are illiterate and 5% are literate. Therefore, rural exploiters and their families have low level of literacy. Based on the formal report of statistic center of Iran the level of literacy’s average in country is more than 90%, but in Sistan and Baluchistan is just more than 70%. So there is a distinct deference between the literate level of surveyed rural families with the average of literate level of villages in Sistan and Baluchestan and the country. On the other hand the high dimension of households (6 persons) cause to high expenditures such as food (68%), health (20%) and the remained for other expenditures related to the educating children, clothing, fun, etc) and therefore the amount of saving is about zero. Data show that rural exploiters and their families are among the poorest people in Iran, also in terms of social.
Destruction of rural environments by human in the Surveyed Pasture of Shoorrood is carried out by cutting shrubs in order to secure fuel for firewood, cooking, heating, creating pens and selling it in order to provide necessary daily needs. Given to the total area of the Surveyed Pasture of Shoorrood which is about 7500 hectares, the amount of pasture destruction in a year (2009) by direct function of human has been calculated 1945350 Kg. So given to the fact that pasture shrubs are taken into account just for feeding legitimate livestock in the pasturage season, human with direct function causes to intensify the destruction of this divine source.
Pasture exploiters cause to intensify the pasture destruction by keeping surplus livestock in an indirect form. In the Surveyed Pasture of Shoorrood in Shib-ab District, pasture's production capacity in a hectare is 750kg (legitimate for 0/9 livestock unit), and the annual production capacity in the total area of pasture is 5625000 kg (legitimate for 7oo7 livestock units). In spite of low pasture's output (about 750kg in a hectare), that is another factor for economic poverty in the area, inhabitants keep more livestock for providing necessary life's need; on the other hand because of the inhabitants' social poverty pastures are used irregular caused to pasture destruction, so that in the surveyed Pasture of Shoorrood, 35% of total livestock of rural exploiters are included surplus livestock (existing 0/5 surplus livestock unit in a hectare); and given to the daily need of any livestock unit to 2kg fodder, these number livestock units need about 2818932 kg fodder annually which its providing is more than the capacity of pasture's power.
The results of research show that villagers' social and economic poverty cause to environment (pasture) destruction with direct function (cutting shrubs to secure fuel, sale and creating pen), and indirect function (keeping livestock more than the capacity of pasture).