1 استادیار دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
2 استاد دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
3 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه مدرس
4 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Migration is one of important rural - urban interaction between rural and urban region. Approaches to the migration Studies consistently between Pessimistic and optimistic view, from the 1990 re-optimistic approach to migration is considered. Seasonal migration is types of rural urban migration that has been less studied. For the first time in the 1970 the studies of migration start. However, this type of migration in less studied in Iran. in rural areas if agriculture and animal husbandry activities not provides annual household needs and does not provide the permanent migration for rural labor to move the seasonal migration will occur. The migrant in unemployment season or even in season of Agriculture migrate to cities and after a few months activities in urban areas return again. This seasonal and rotational motion is repeated in any year. Mountainous area with above the level of poverty and the unsuitable natural environment that not able to supply the needs of rural households and rural region with marginalized position this type of migration will occur. There are many countries with seasonal labor migration around the world and Iran and have influence on the economy and livelihoods of rural households.
These study surveys the effect of seasonal labor migration on rural livelihoods of rural households in Sarvabad region in Kurdistan province have been done. We used livelihood approach for analysis, livelihood approach that used in this study, proposed in past two decades. According to this approach, the livelihood of rural households in five categories of capital assets are divided into these funds consists of social capital, physical capital, natural capital and financial and human capital. This increase in assets improved livelihoods reduce vulnerability and increase prosperity and reduce poverty is. The effect of seasonal migration for labor on the livelihoods of rural households for each type of capital initially considered indicators and questions designed to measure them. Two types of questionnaires for both groups include households with migrants and non migrants were considered so that all assets in the two groups compared. Total numbers of 236 questionnaires were two groups in 13 villages were randomly performed. After all assets in the two groups of non-migrant and migrant households were compared with the total average of assets this comparison was performed. We used of T test for compare two group in 5 assets and total assets.
Results and Discussion
About social capital score obtained among migrants is higher than non migrants it was probably due to weak governing relations among rural migrant and migrants because a few months of the year outside the village are less dependent on social relations in the village. Natural capital as non migrant households in migrant households is higher than that this seems logical because if the natural capital those migrant households were high there was no reason for migration. Other funds that finance capital, physical capital and human capital in migrant families is higher than non-immigrant households. The average total assets in the migrant households than non-migrant households. In the concrete case of capital (natural capital and physical capital) as well this investment is higher in migrant households. The results of this study shows positive impact of seasonal labor migration on rural household livelihoods in the city is Sarvabad. In fact, migration can play a vital role in reducing vulnerability and poverty reduction in low-income countries, and this view is that the negative effects of migration on departure and destination is needed reforms. Because of this seasonal migration leading to permanent residence in the destination of immigrants will not be fewer negative consequences than other types of migration to urban areas is on. A remittance is one important thing that transfer by rural migrants to villages. This earned income in the city or money that sent to the village either in consumption or production investment has generally positive impact on the livelihoods of rural households.
If proper management can be performed seasonal migration can have positive effects and management should including education and professional training to migrants in order to increase positive effects of seasonal activities in the city. Legislation context like insurance support can help to seasonal migration for find work or increase income .seasonal migration is one of the livelihood strategies in rural region in Sarvabad in Kurdistan province by doing seasonal migration they increase at least three type of household livelihood capital and eventually increase in capital assets will improve rural livelihoods. For 85 per cent of migrant's seasonal migration income is unique source for household livelihood and they can not manage household livelihood without seasonal migration .seasonal migration has vital role in rural livelihood and the migrants cannot provides household needs base on rural source. We should change our view at least about effects of rural-urban seasonal migration in the household livelihood and rural economy in this case study because household livelihood is depends on income of this type of migration.