1 استاد دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
2 استادیار دانشگاه پیامنور واحد گنبدکاووس
3 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The impact of human role in the development process of rural areas is considered to be the most vital development tool as human force plays an influential part in the development flow both, in terms of quality as well as quantity. Increase in population and lack of jobs in rural sectors has affected rural families and has lead to a migration of rural habitats towards larger urban areas in search for jobs with better income. Under such circumstances, several young rural habitats prefer to consider such temporary migration as a strategic move to combat with unemployment and after spending some time period mastering skills and earning sufficient savings, they return to the rural sectors. The main goal of this survey is to analyze such kind of migration (return of migrants) with emphasis on rural livelihood stability and its impact on human, finance, physical, social and natural capital of returning migrants and resulting outcome of such migrants and the variety of economical activities springing in such areas. Studies conducted in this avenue have shown that 9 villages in the town of Aq Qala have witnessed the return of migrants to their villages. Hence, all the 62 cases of migrants who have returned to these villages have been taken into consideration.
The approach adopted in this survey is based on questionnaires completed and interviews conducted with such migrants. The results of the questionnaires have been analyzed using the T and Z descriptive statistics in the SPSS software environment and ARCGIS has been used for the preparation of map.
Results and Discussion
Results show that the temporal migration of rural youngsters is the most important strategy adopted towards life management and after returning back with a hand full of experience and skills, dramatic changes can be seen in the human, financial, physical, social and natural capital status of such returning migrants. The most crucial outcomes of such kind of migration are improved incomes, better social welfare, reduced vulnerabilities, improved food security, improved san and dignity for the migrants returning to their villages.
The main reason for poverty and unemployment in the surveyed area of the study is this, that the land alone cannot be used to sustain the daily increasing population of villages, therefore the livelihood of families is exposed and on the verge of Susceptibility.
In this research, the yields of skilled return migrants were evaluated in respect to rural livelihood stability. The results show that there is a close relation between livelihood approaches and the informal urban sector and the return of skilled migrants back to the villages of our study resulted in the formation of new activities (industrial and services) along with earlier activities in the areas around the villages and has played an extremely important role in creating new and assured sources of income and has played an effective role in reducing the susceptibility of the families and has provided them with suitable power for managing their lives. The results of the study indicate their satisfaction in respect to their profession and skills.