عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Entrepreneur is a person of very high aptitude who pioneers change, possessing characteristics found in only a very small fraction of the population. On the other extreme of definitions, anyone who wants to work for him or herself is considered to be an entrepreneur. The word Entrepreneur originates from the French word, entreprendre which means "to undertake." In a business context, it means to start a business. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary presents the definition of an entrepreneur as one who organizes, manages, and assumes the risks of a business or enterprise.
According to the field experts, entrepreneurship is the engine of development and its further advancement is one of the possible strategies to solve the rural areas challenges, guarantee the variety of rural economy, and optimal use of rural resources.
Development of small and micro businesses can transform the local economy. Tourism emerged as the largest global industry of the 20th century and is projected to grow even faster in the 21st century. Tourism as a fast growing and largest global industries is definitely a proper ground for rural entrepreneurship development. Year by the year, variety of products and increasing destinations are among important reasons for its high demand. In this research, we study rural entrepreneurship development as well as its feasibility from the tourism viewpoint.
Tourism SMEs are also significant for their economic development potential. This may apply inseveral ways. First, a flourishing visitor economy or circumstances where entrepreneurs sense thatvisitors will be attracted to an area - creates opportunities for new enterprise creation. In the context of alternative tourism, this is important because in some, perhaps notably rural, localities there is littleprospect of alternative forms of investment. Though individually such businesses employ few people,collectively the employment generated by businesses reliant on visitor spend can be highly significant.Further, the development of independent businesses can mean that much of the revenue generated byvisitors stays in the locality.
This is an applied research which is done according to analytic – comparative survey methods and the related data are collected from both documents (to provide theoretical and background information) and also field survey methods like questionnaire, interview and observation.Study population is the youth (15-29 years) of Eskndan and Kandovan villages. The numbers of study samples are 123 people that Cochran's formula is derived. Questionnaires for assessing the reliability of Cronbach's alpha (reliability equal to 85 percent of them) and to assess the validity of the opinions of experts, scholars and professors have been used.
Study areas are Kandovan and Eskndan village in Osku city of East Azarbaijan province. To evaluate the indicators for entrepreneurship, Characteristics of entrepreneurship were compared among youth in Kandovan village as a tourism destination and Eskndan (nontouristic village) both located in the same rural district with the same conditions.
Results and Discussion
Kandovan as one of the Iranian Touristic villages located at altitudes over 2,200 meters on the northern slopes of Sahand Mount in Azerbaijani. Kandovan is one of the three rock villages. Since the environment has an important role in the formation characteristics and entrepreneurial spirit. The characteristics and entrepreneurial spirit were compared among young people in two villages. The amount of risk taking among young people in two villages were compared with 8 items, the results show that risk taking among kandovans youth is higher than Eskandans youth.
The second Studied feature was the creativity and innovation, and the result shows that significant differences between the youth of two villages and the average among KANDOVAN youth is higher than others. We can say that the various and new demands of tourists has increased motivation, creativity and innovation among KANDOVAN youth. Entrepreneurs owe their success to their abilities and not know the fate and destiny. To assess the impact of tourism on the confidence of youth, was used of the five items. The results show that the confidence of KANDOVAN young people is higher than Eskandan youth. This is due to the presence of tourists from different countries and regions and cultural interactions with different people in rural areas and increased communication with the outside world and increase awareness of rural youth.
With four items were compared uncertainty among young people in two villages. The results showed significant differences in three itenms between young people in two villages and the mean value of the items are also among the kandovan youth is higher than Eskandan youth.
The last entrepreneural charactristic was Internal Iocus of control or non fatalism. The result of the research shows there aren't significant differences between two villages' young people in Fatalism. We can say that tourism has no effect on reducing youth Fatalism. The main reason can be the beliefs and traditions of the villagers that are not easily changeable. Because Villagers strongly believe the fate.
Tourism makes to the rural environment to stimulate entrepreneurial and dynamic economic environment. The rural environment becomes a motivating and stimulating environment for entrepreneurship. Tourism draws attention to the local authorities and various organizations to create and develop the infrastructure of the village. The new facilities and technologies such as hotels, parking, emergency facilities, IT and ICT in rural areas are crated. Financial institutions, banks and private investors due to a rapid return on investment and the possibility of high profits, are simply willing to invest in such villages. Or grants and loans to rural residents in these villages. Public awareness of villagers, especially young peoples will be promoted to cultural interaction with tourism.
According to the results, unique texture, great position and magnificent tourism attractions have provided a great potential for Kandovan village to exploit tourism and entrepreneurial opportunities as much as possible. On the other hand, the results revealed that there is a significant entrepreneurial difference between Kandovan youths, as a tourism destination, and other similar rural regions like Eskandan. In fact, entrepreneurial characteristics observed in Kandovan's young peoples are more noticeable, compared to other villages.