عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Urbanization Development in Iran and in the world, has caused growing critical problems, and has made it necessary to have a review on urban planning in our country.
Spatial distribution of cities and population and their control and guide have not made within a comprehensive national plan, and problems rising from quick urban growth have become complicated.
Before 1921, Iran enjoyed a reasonable system of urbanization and urban development. It continued to be a homogenous one up to 1956 in which no city was superior to the other. But since late 1950s, with rural population invasion to cities, and increasing urban population, the country's current problems gradually emerged. One of the most evident instances of immigration in Iran is physical and spatial instances. It appeares in the form of settlement in slums, which will eventually accelerate urbanization and physical growth of big cities and particularly metropolitans.
Therefore, since 1981, the government has started establishing new towns, aiming to absorb population overflow, reducing economic load of metropolitans, preventing big cities to extend irregularity, local extension, optimal population distribution and so on. In this regard, 32 cities were located and 17 town were performed. Four towns of Andisheh, Pardis, Parand, and Hashtgerd were located and built near the largest metropolitan in Iran, Tehran.
Building new towns, as a basic solution in the country's urbanization system began in 1981 and it still continues. Now, after more than decades of the activity of these towns, it seems necessary to investigate the reasons for population growth of some towns compared to others. As the most populated new towns around Tehran, Andisheh town was studied.
This research was based on library studies and fieldwork. First the necessity of establishing new towns in the country was emphasized, having studied related texts and references. Then considering theoretical principles, a conceptual model for developing new satellite towns was compiled. Then data was collected through filling questionnaire and field study and official statistics. SPSS software was used for analyzing collected data and statistics .The research location is Andisheh new town which is located in 30 Km Southwest and constructed for settlement of Tehran population overflow. Kucheran Formula is used for volume calculation with 95% accuracy. Sampling is done randomly.
Results and Discussion
In order to study the first supposition on Andisheh new town resident's dependency to Tehran, the working place of residents were studied. Six choices were offered to the interviewees: Tehran Metropolitan, Andisheh new town, Karaj Road, Shahriar & Suburb, Karaj and others. The studies showed that 48% of the samples are working in Tehran. In other words, the employment of about half of the studied population is dependent to Tehran metropolitan and only 25%of the residents are working in Andisheh new town. Then the vehicle used for going to work was studied. The results show that 38% of people were commuting to work on their private cars, 20% by booking cars, 17% by bus, 17% by taxi, 7% on foot and 1% by underground train. Thus we can say that daily commute of about 48% of Andisheh new town adds to Tehran metropolitan traffic, crowd and pollution. In order to study the manner of providing services and facilities for Andisheh new town residents, the needs were put into four groups. Medical and health, Financial & Administrative, recreation & free time and shopping. The studies showed that about half of the population, that is 55% of the total households were going to Tehran to fulfill their demands, 12% to Shariyar and 8% to Karaj. Only 25% of the studied population meets the questioned demands in Andisheh new town. Shortage of urban facilities is among the most significant reasons related to this issue. Thus in fulfilling occupational self-efficiency and providing urban services, this new town has not been so successful. Shortage of shopping centers compared to Tehran producing centers, shortage of variety and most important of all, approaching to Tehran are among the most influential factors in this regard. Because of shortage of recreational facilities for spending free time, most residents prefer to travel to Tehran. Considering the population, Andisheh New Town municipality has not been able to provide considerable services .The same is true for medical and health services. In this regard, people commutes to Tehran metropolitan were studied. Among 321studied families, 88% commuted to Tehran, 6% said they never go to Tehran and 6.5% chose Seldom. 44% chose 1-2 times per month, 26 % 1-2 times per week and 13% chose "Seldom", 7 % chose "Everyday ", 4% chose 3-5 times per week and finally 2% 3-5 times per week commute to Tehran. Based on the studies, another factor affecting population absorption in Andisheh New Town is the difference in land and housing price between this new town and Tehran. The studies show that the rate of land, housing and rental price in Tehran metropolitan is very high and it continues to increase each year. This makes it so hard for a large number of residents to provide housing. Thus a large number of people including immigrants and newcomers or even Tehran residents are looking for a new place for residence. So they can have a cheaper housing as they get benefit from metropolitan job market. Thus it should be said that the distance to Tehran metropolitan and the difference in land and housing prices between Tehran and Andisheh new town are among the most effective factors influencing population absorption to this new town. The purpose for building these towns was to offer cheap housing as well as occupational and servicing self-efficiency, so that it does not encourage people to commute to Tehran.
The studies showed that as the goal of self-efficiency becomes less important in new satellite towns, and as they are not capable of providing different demands of residents, the new towns are continuously dependent on and in close relation with metropolitans. Since Tehran new towns are not sufficiently independent in occupational and servicing self-efficiency and are constantly dependent to Tehran metropolitan for job market and providing residents' demands, and since costs of transportation has an important role, a new satellite town which is located in a less distance from metropolitan would be more successful in absorbing population. The studies showed that the working place of 48%of the residents is Tehran.55% of households go to Tehran to meet the studied demands. Thus the first supposition of the research is proved. Considering the results gained on the reason for residence and comparing housing price in Tehran and Andisheh new town and the superiority of owners to tenants, the second supposition is also proved.
Therefore the effective factors on Andisheh new town population growth can be summarized as follows. Andisheh new town nearness to Tehran metropolitan, the difference in housing and land prices in Tehran and Andisheh new town and access to job markets of the metropolitan.
Thus Andisheh new town which is in the same direction of Tehran development and in a near distance to the metropolitan has faced more population growth.