1 دانشیار دانشکدهی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه پیام نور
3 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Artificial islands are developing in the Persian Gulf. The small states of Persian Gulf are trying to increase their territories, and they are trying to obtain the new territories for their trade, tourist and economical activities. At the same time, emerging new artificial islands and bold plans and prevailing of artificial islands by most advanced technologies are raising environmental issues, discussion and various questions on their environmental consequences and the commitments of states for conservation of environment, adjacent areas and the implications of destroying of natural ecosystems. Knowing and recognizing the obligations of states in relation to other countries is necessary in the enclosed or semi-enclosed environment of Persian Gulf for littoral countries in the Persian Gulf. With respect to the environmental implications of these actions, we can add a new dimension to interpretations of international pollution. so we can call the pollution resulting from developing artificial islands in the Persian Gulf as a kind of environmental encroachment or transgression.
To have a strong reason, using the comprehensive information and multilateral is necessary. The methods of gathering of the information are using the library and documental resources. The analytical method is a qualitative and critical approach. the purpose of this paper is the explanation of legal regime and environmental implications of artificial islands in the Persian Gulf.
Results and Discussion
If we seek the AUE plans to build the artificial islands, we realize the profound changes in the coast of Dubai just on opposite of Abu-musa. By ten years, the whole of the shallow coast of Dubai because of artificial islands will become a dry environment. As a result the more distance parts of the coast get shallower and the morphology of Persian Gulf will be changed. The building of this island in the Persian Gulf causes marine currents steaming from the west to east in the opposite direction of clockwise disrupted. these currents are responsible to water and sediment exchange. So it increases the bargaining power of emirates in determining maritime boundaries. In fact, in regard to border between Iran and AUE has not yet determined these measures equal to increase the UAE contribution of the sea. thus if the Arab countries increase their contributions of the sea, it is not unlikely that they will demand more contribution of the sea in the future. By completing the project of the build of islands, the Dubai coast long, ten times will become larger and the capacity of settlement will increase to one million people. Qatar, Oman, Bahrain also are engaging to build theirs island like UAE. as a result, we are witnessing the increase of their domination on the Persian Gulf.
Some of the states in the Persian Gulf are planning to expand their territories by establishing bench of artificial islands. The many Discussions such as definition of artificial islands, the legal statues of artificial islands in the maritime territory and the effects of artificial islands on the responsibilities of riparian countries in the sensitive environment of Persian Gulf and the effects of theirs establishment on the rights of other countries in the most important and dynamic of place in the world are posed. if add the conflict between Iran and UAE on three islands of Tunbs and Abu-musa to other problems of the region, a more disturbing picture may appear. Littoral country must coordinate its projects with other riparian countries. This action is not only based on this fact that the Persian Gulf is a enclosed or semi-closed sea, but also due to it is mentioned as one of most fragile and sensitive of environmental area in the international sea convention in the year 1982.