1 دانشجوی دکترای برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران
2 استادیار دانشکدهی جغرافیا ، دانشگاه تهران
3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
عنوان مقاله [English]
Housing, as a sector which absorbs 25% of all investments and 30% of country’s money supply, has been always a place of dispute for different factors and also it has been the origin of several positive and negative effects in macro, zonal, and local levels.
Shortcomings regarding investment in industrial and agricultural Sectors and housing role as one of the main properties of each family has caused a disease called bubble growth in housing in Iran and consequently in Kurdistan.
Housing in the province of Kurdistan, following national level, has numerous problems and shortcoming. The province was one of the critical regions of Iran in terms of house supply and the amount of investment.
In this study housing current situations indexes have been investigate and at last, by making use of SWOT model, the conditions of the sector has been analyzed. the present study tries to investigate and identify the main problems of housing in the province, and to offer some strategies and guidelines for eradicating and lessening these problems.
The present study is an applied one which is done in two ways: Descriptive and Analytic. The methods used in collecting data are documentary (library – based) and field (survey) ones. The need data and statistics have been collected from authentic centers such as Iran Statistics Center and Central Bank. The final analysis has been done by SWOT model.
Results and Discussion
The results of the study shows in the urban areas and rural areas of the pronince of Kurdistan 60% and 87% of the residential own the place they inhabit, respectively. Family index to house unit in urban areas in 1355 has reached 1.11 from 1.48.The above mentioned index in rural areas has been stable from 1355 to 1385 at the point of 1.04.
Much important than this is the person (individual) index in a room which has increased from 2.12 in 1365 to 1.38 in 1385 in urban areas and from 2.1 to 1.5 for rural areas at the similar Period. Yet, the difference in this index is of significance in comparison to standards. In the urban areas of the province of Kurdistan more than 29% of the houses and 3.3% of the rural houses have been built with durable material, considering private sector investment growth compared to fixed Price, if we consider the year of 1376 as our basis, we can witness so much fluctuations. The maximum increase in investment was in 1376 with 772% and the minimum one was in 1377 with -77.1%.In terms of nationwide scale, we can say fluctuations were so low that the maximum increase was 17.7% in 1381 and the minimum one was -6.96% in 1376.
The portion related to the cost of the land in housing costs in the period (from 1375 to 1384) has been constantly increasing. It has grown from 28.66% to 44.68% of all housing costs. Yet, buying, selling, in the renting costs were regularly increasing. However, renting in the recent has had more growth than the others.
The portion related to housing during last decade in family budget in all income one-tenths.in the province has been increasing but housing cost in family budget one-tenths to some extent has a reverse relation with income one-tenths. That is, one-tenths with high income has allocated fewer portions to housing cost.
Based on the results of a GINI Coefficient which is a criterion for studying difference among society s economical one-tenths have been decreasing during last decade it fell to 0.284 in the year of 1385 from 0.306 in 1355 .House to annual income has had a decreasing rate and their ability to buy a house has decreased to 15.3 meters per year from 18.5 meters in 1355.
The sector of housing in the province of Kurdistan, the same as nation-wide level and even more than it, has fundamental Structural weaknesses and deficiencies. House shortage , high Prices of the land and renting, the role of middlemen and exchange regarding land and house, Poor quality of more than 40% of houses, Shortages and weaknesses in terms of quantitative indexes, the low rate of investment in housing and expensive materials and building structures along with other specific problems existed in this province such as environmental and topographical conditions and also general economical inability are the main problems of this sector in the province. So, it would be necessary for private sector to be under financial and statutory support of state sectors and along with a supportive, dynamic state sector and in a quite clear legal situation through a comprehensive and flexible (in facing with problems) plan, these two sectors should cooperate to eliminate housing sector problems.