دکترای جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد آستارا
عنوان مقاله [English]
Guilan forests include some areas from Astara Chay River which is located in Iran and Azerbaijan Republic boundary to Chaboksar River in the east of Guilan. There are 2041 villages in this area which are as the permanent or temporary residence location of 61110 families and population of 368120 people.
Guilan forests, like a narrow band, have covered the mountain areas of Northern Alborz with an area of 550000 ha. According to the population living in this area, the population density is about 0.7 people in ha. The geographic situation and topography of Guilan forests and accessible facilities to different areas and drinking water have a fundamental role in the density and transmittance of cattle and forest living people. In Guilan forests, the presence of small and dispersed forest villages and agricultural and animal husbandry activities is more than the ability and capacity of forest which has led to forest destruction. Although, the numerous number of villages and their smallness and dispersion are figured to the barrier for regions development and have not created economic servicing. Animal husbandry in forests, in its traditional and old method is in consistent with industrial exploration of forests.
The information gathering method of this article is based on the library studies and direct visiting of some of forest areas of Guilan.
Results and Discussion
Traditional methods of animal husbandry and increase in the population of native cattle in forests of Guilan in combination to forester's people unique way of life have created a specific type of scattering and population structure. The number of forest living population in forests of Guilan has reverse relation with agricultural ability and possibilities. Because more gain through agricultural activities has led to attraction of human force to this region, and more welfare and better exploitation of sanitary, training and cultural possibilities. So, more and better existence of this kind of attractions and economical possibilities in plainly and central and northern parts of eastern Guilan in comparison to western Guilan has led to lower density of foresters.
Before forest nationalization law in 1962, there were a lot of virgin and original forests in Guilan, but nowadays it can be declared that there are not any kind of these forests in Guilan; and in every part of these forests, there are some rural houses with some castles and fields.
The main reasons of Guilan forests destruction are as follows:
a) using forests as a pasture;
b) impermissible cutting of trees and traditional exploitation;
c) forests fire.
Dividing the plainly fields into 10 ha pieces and transferring it to capitalists can also accelerate the destruction process of forests. During two decades (1970s through 1990s) with population increase in forestry and rural regions of Guilan, the process of destruction has accelerated in Guilan province. During the Revolution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, impermissible cutting of trees and people invasion has increased severely. On the other hand, the forests surface became free for cattle grazing and it led to increase in cattleman number. The location of foresters is plain or mountains. Forest, this national capital, more than economic value, has other environmental values, too. Soil revival through hummus formation and increasing its growing ability, conservation of soil from erosion, making the air pure through photosynthesis and plant evaporation and Perspiration and balancing the climate all are from forest advantages. The role of forests is not summarized only to wood exploitation, because systematic exploitation of forests parallel to economical output of it can lead to working opportunities and creation of big and small industries.
The results show that despite the plans and attempts carried out on the optimum usage of natural resource, there is over usage of forest resources. It can be expressed that according to present process on forest trees, natural resources including plant, soil and water may encounter a serious damage. In order to revive of geographic environment of Guilan and preverve the natural elements of living in it, fundamental proceedings were suggested.