1 دانشیار دانشکدهی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Weakening national states diluting international borders ongoing wane of governing and reconstructing are of phenomenon that will change the political geography of the world which has been formed based on international system. Border are made to let the states govern their sub ordinate regions and the inhabitant. However the changes in the world dilated the states control over their regions. So the traditional concept of border has revolutionized. In the view of different science specialists the borders have diluted or vanished. Based on these political geography phenomenon goods, people, minds and complete independence of government can't be controlled. Nowadays the borders maintaining some of their old properties are taking new functions based on ICT in the globalized word which is different from their previous ones. Evolving information and communication technology, affected political security and economic and social aspects of countries. These changes are more outstanding in Geographical elements factors and concepts the cyberspace created by computers and electronic network is an aspect of globalizations which has been appreciated as a reality plus the real space. Considering these changes in addition to the real space in which the borders are made to control the different flows, in the uneducable cyberspace there must be virtual borders to control the flows.
In this research using analysis-descriptive method and Library data, documentaries and records, related 2 the subject and also the internet we tried to define he changes happened to the subject of border as a geographical phenomenon in the globalization age and cyberspace. So in this research, cyberspace and information technologic in general is the independent and the concept of border is the dependant variable.
Results and Discussion
Increasing improvements of ICT in the globalization age and emergence and development of cyberspace has made political and international borders lose some of their functions. Cyberspace which is resulted from the developments of information and communication technologies has become a tangible reality and continuously expands in the lives of human beings. Cyberspace like the real space has different elements, the concepts such as governing, security and threat in the cyberspace is totally different from those of real space and geography. For example state governing winches includes political, economic and military governing and also threats and security have been changed in cyberspace. And new threats owners have emerged in cyberspace such as hackers, viruses and computer worms, terrorism in cyberspace and unethical sites.
Since we set borders to define the limits of our activities and considering that the nature of border never changes but its function changes it can be said that we have virtual borders and border controls. Considering that there are borders on geographical and real space of the countries and through which the different flows are controlled how can the borders be made in a way that reflects most of the different political phenomenon of real space. Wherever there are phrases such as cyber terrorism flow of information and hackers, regulating the cyberspace and internet is completely essential. Filtering, credit card, internet cods are of the most important virtual borders.
Political borders are the main factor that separate political unites from each other. Moreover these borders create unity in a territory. Border lines are conventional lines which are made in order to define the boundaries of a political unit. Borders are of the most subjects of political geography subjects. However globalization caused lots of issues in destroying the borders. Cyberspace and internet have totally developed in globalization age. Cyberspace is defined in this way: the space in which different activities, data processing and information distribution, communications and control and management services are done through electronic and virtual mechanisms. Moreover some political elements are illustrated differently. The terrorism exists in cyberspace too, unethical and anti religion websites or racist activities necessitates regulating cyberspace and the internet. However territory and government concepts passed variety of changes. In the past:
a) There was basic and wide governing in territories of states;
b) Territories were completely controlled by governments;
c) The executive and official systems were hierarchically controlled;
d) The borders were completely closed and the were externally controlled.
But at the time being:
a) The borders are penetratable;
b) International low that cover crossing the borders has developed very much;
c) Internal players in political area have gained more power;
d) Ignoring the distance all countries got neighbors;
e) Globalization developed the relation but in many areas there are no managerial tools for them;
f) ICT affects the external policy.
The main question of this paper is: what changes happened to the borders in the globalization age and cyberspace. The results indicate that there have been functional changes in globalization and cyberspace. The most important subject was the virtual borders filtering internet cods, telecommunication cods, credit cards and password are considered as virtual borders. Which are named electronic borders too. So electronic borders represents changes in the function of cyber political space.