1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرّس
2 استاد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشکدهی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
3 دانشیار جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه زنجان
4 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه اصفهان
عنوان مقاله [English]
Zanjan has recently enjoyed considerable population and physical growth. The rapid irregular growth in population number caused unfavorable formation of informal settlement areas in the city. Islamabad is of the largest informal accommodation regions in Zanjan which was built as a consequence of massive rural migration during 1970s. Although the area, at present, is considered an official area within the city, it is suffering from different skeletal, service systems, demographic, social and cultural matters problems. This research analyses the spatial-skeletal abnormalities in Islamabad region and tries to explain the incidences of these abnormalities.
In this descriptive-analytic study comprehensive statically based methods including mean center test and standard deviation ellipses were used to identity and comprehend the spatial areas of Islamabad. Kernel density estimates in geographical information system GIS and lateral software's Case and Crime Analysis were applied to detect focal urban crime prone. The sample of the present study is the collection of the crimes committed in the city limits of Zanjan within a one-year period.
Results and Discussion
According to the findings of current study one of the focal areas of crime dotted on an informal settlement regions is slamabad and it matches the spatial distribution of crime in the above mentioned area; i.e. commitment of crimes concentrated in certain parts of the region. Islamabad region, one of the most crime-spotted districts of Zanjan is among the largest informal settlement areas, based on a consequence of massive rural migration in 1970s. Later censures in 2006 indicate that 39439 people i.e. more than 11.2 percent of Zanjan's populations are living in Islamabad. While it has just 1.8% of the total living space in Zanjan, so it encounters high density. So Islamabad informal settlement region is one of the highly populated districts of Zanjan, it equals 422 people per hectares, while the relative population density of Zanjan is 69 person per hectare. In other words, Islamabad is relatively 6 times more dense than Zanjan and is has higher rate of crime occurrence, respectively. Therefore, we can conclude that there exist a direct correlation between the population density and social disorder rate increase. Highest percentage of the areas is devoted to residential district, so that 45.70% of the area is residential. However this proportion is 17.6% for Zanjan. Therefore, the residential area in Islamabad district is 35.81% higher, 11% of which devoted to mixed residence. This population is 2.4% in Zanjan, so it can be concluded that residential and mixed residential districts in Islamabad are 3 times higher than Zanjan itself and shows an imbalance in residential allocation planning. On the other hand, The residents needs and requirements, and other residential- related portables are hardly qualified. And most of the utilities and services are insufficient, if any. Extremely high contribution to residential area without sufficient services and utilities had an undeniable impact on crime increase on the district. Hence, the type and style of urban utilization has a direct affecton committing or preventing crimes and misdemeanors.
Islamabad region is one of the most important focal occurrences of crime in Zanjan, and spatial distribution of the studied crimes here matches the intensive and clustered pattern. Most committed crimes in the area are villainy, freighting, outbreak, addiction, and drug trafficking. There is also t a direct relation between high population density and crime occurring rate; so that the average population density in this region is 6 times higher than other ports of Zanjan, and so is the rate of crime occurrence. On the other hand, extremely higher residential contribution without sufficient services and utilities has been effective on the geographical distribution of type and rate of different crimes and spatial pattern inventions.
Keywords: Social Abnormalities, Informal Settlement, Islamabad, Zanjan.