عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
School of Modernism started between 1920 until 1930 in both sides of Atlantic Ocean. However, one can see its signs in the first movements in planning about the Garden City ideas. The idea of Modernism happened at the same time in Architecture and this paradigm was dominant until late 1960. In twentieth century, the limitations of natural resources were understood more and more. The growth of awareness about environment is considered as a sign of the emergence of postmodernism school. The modernism school was criticized. Modernization is a process that increases the ability of a political and economical society through the industrial and bureaucracy. In the modernism humanitarian tradition, planning is trying to pave the way for development and distribution of social justice through organizing city in a beauty symbolist and efficient way. The 1960 s is the pick of criticisms on the modern city planning. This was the belief that returns to the history, damage treatment of the modern and here that the place loses him and the revival of the values of the local historical, variety, meaning and authenticity of part of the protection and revival of ancient cities and building new towns like ancient cities an important position in urban development. City and culture receipt as a text in domain of meaning that was not function. Therefore in 1960 s disavow of functionalism, rationalism, vagrancy urban context is a prevalent concept. Instead of present support of the multiplicity, many people rejected the theory of comprehensive and relying on the reality. Products of this postmodern approach are participant’s design, attention to the social sciences, using the historical symbol and the revival of the historical monuments in urban planning.
Descriptive research design is used in the studies which aim at comparing two approaches or two thought schools. Therefore in this paper the research method is descriptive-analytic through which researcher used documents including books, papers and other documents in scientific database like Elsevier, Proquest for gathering data and information. In the next step this dataset is analyzed and land use system in Modernism and Postmodernism schools is compared.
Results and Discussion
The criticisms against modernism deficiencies and the approaches for solving its deficiencies were named postmodernism. The results of applying the ideas of these two paradigms in land use planning are discussed in this paper. World’s experiences show that the impact of applying each of these paradigms in projects and plans in land use planning have been different, and each has their own consequences. Considering the importance of land use planning and its approaches in urban planning, comparative method was used to do an analysis for the impact of these two paradigms. In other hand, transition of modernism to the Post modernism yield through of motions the social-economic and political sectors that coordinate with the daily human needs and causing rotation of modernism on the Post modernism approach. Specialized movement the change in the field of urban planning of the 1960 s by professionals like Jane Jacob, St. Louis Mumford and Robert Ventury that modernism for destroying life and urban anatomy attacked, was started. The results of using the two paradigms in urban planning and especially the land use are obvious and considerable. As land use system in viewpoint of these two paradigms there are basic differences between the dimensions of theoretical and practical aspects. Results of the comparative study of the land use system show the difference between the two paradigms.
The results of study show that there has been a turn in laws and regulations of land use planning from modernism to postmodernism. The values of modernism have been considered negatively in postmodernism school and there has been a return to the prevailing values of the pre-modernism era. The land use in modernism paradigm has tendency to the detachment functions and zoning of functions by the rigid zoning of region land use. At the postmodernism, conceptions like base-form instructions that farraginous land use and some functional urban spaces are making as an example of the newest approach of the postmodernism control system in the land use instruction is revised.