1 دانشیار دانشکدهی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
2 استادیار دانشکدهی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
3 استادیار دانشکدهی محیط زیست، دانشگاه تهران
4 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The present paper examines the ecological footprint of Kermanshah as the 9th largest city of Iran. It also tries to answer the following question: Dose the ecological environment of Kermanshah Support the basic needs of it's population? And are the Biological systems of Kermanshah able to answer all socio- economic questions related to different activities of residents. This study is completed based on a descriptive method in which the whole urban households of Kermanshah city are considered as the statistical sample. The statistics related to their consumption of Dvtryq authorities and researcher questionnaire consists of 14 items have been collected. The sample size of the present study was 322 households which were selected by cluster random method. The findings of this study show that the ecological footprint in Kermanshah city indifferent consumption groups of food, transportation, natural gas heating, drinking water, electricity and required land for waste disposal is 1.82 hectares.
Although the mentioned list is not a complete inventory of city expenditures, But the comparison of these items with the occupied spaces by the city and even with the supporting spaces such as county and province. Indicates that to fulfill its biological needs and sustainability, the city depend on a geographic realm beyond the Kermanshah Province. A glance to the consumed item in Kermanshah city Confirms that the share of food with 1.22 hectares is the largest share among all other consumed item, other items used in this study has been calculated less than their share of food. The lowest rate belong to required land for garbage with approximately 0.000006 hectares or 0.06 m2.Since Iran's biological capacity is 0.8 hectares, 1.82- hectare ecological footprint in Kermanshah it means that the average bearable biological capacity of Kermanshah city is 2.275 times more than the average country .in other words, can be expressed With current consumption trends continue, Kermanshah city for food Energy and land needed to absorb carbon dioxide. the space is about 180 times the area of your current needs.
In this general description of the methods - and a bit of explanation and analysis has been used throughout the study. This research is primarily a data type the study population on sisted of all households residing in the city of Kermanshah. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 This study documents the methods and field data collection has been Receipt of documents by using the method of operation as well as library and refer to the websites and scientific databases, and various organizations, data collection is necessary Part of the data that they collect from the way documents are not possible .Is obtained through a questionnaire. Major statistical researcher who failed to achieve them through official sources. Statistics of food consumption was. Example of using this formula Kutcher (Hafeznia, 117, 1377), the accuracy level of 5%, and 95% confidence level was calculated per 322 households In this study, cluster random sampling method is used. City of Kermanshah on the sixth district council areas and each area of several blocks to the lottery and were harvested.
In the next compilation, using the ecological footprint of the combined application of inductive methods (detailed) and analog (compound) is formed, to calculate the EF will apply in urban areas. Prerequisite for applying this method, information processing and evaluation of the ecological city of Kermanshah in the area is 10 thousand hectares, which is used to map regions of Kermanshah city. Perhaps the most important stage of research is to obtain data necessary to measure the EF. Data necessary to measure the initial state can be obtained from statistical tables. Including data needed to analyze the energy, food, forest products and its consumption was noted. The general method devised by Wackernagel and Ress (1996), these calculations include the following main steps. The estimated annual per capita consumption of main materials based on regional data and divided by the total population of total consumption. Estimates of land allocated to each consumer for each case by dividing average annual consumption per case on average annual production, or efficiency of the ground. Calculate the total average per person Ecological Footprint (EF) by the sum of each person is dedicated to handling all areas of the ecosystem. To obtain the ecological footprint (Efp) for the planning area population (N), with the result calculated by multiplying the average footprint per person in population size (Efp = N * EF) Wackernagel and Ress (1996).
Results and Discussion
To assess the environmental impacts related to energy consumption and in Kermanshah, The method of ecological footprint by Professor William Small, a biologist and regional planner has been developed at the University of British Columbia, Canada, Used. In this method, the amount needed annually in Kermanshah to the amount of productive land and sea( The ecological ) with existing technology, to meet all their needs, were calculated (Table 1) .
Table 1. Ecological Footprint in Kermanshah different elements and materials
Components EFP (a hectare) EF (hectares/person)
Food 1000840.269 1.22
Waste 4.98 0.0000006
Transport 263562 0.322
Electricity 2,202,29 0.27
Natural gas heating 4714 0.0058
Water 6862 0.008
Total 1496212 1.8
Given a population of 818 362 people living in urban areas, six triple Kermanshah and area of 10 thousand hectares in 2010 Average of 0.01 hectares of land allocated to each of its residents . It is noted that taking over an area of land equal to 180 residents in Kermanshah city is now occupied And even if it is under cultivation with a total surface of 670 893 hectares which is equivalent to the checks , it will be 2.23 times The consumer needs to provide residents a space more than twice the area of Kermanshah Province is required To discuss other biological systems that are necessary to support the city of Kermanshah .Range far beyond the political or geographical scope encompasses.
This article has been attempted using the ecological footprint of urban sustainability should be evaluated in Kermanshah city. The main default of this review is based in Kermanshah without the necessary and sufficient ecological space for its residents needs to be The findings of this study indicate that the ecological footprint in Kermanshah in groups of food, transportation, heating, natural gas, water, electricity and land required for waste disposal is 1.82 acres Although this is not a complete list of city expenditures, But the comparison with the spaces occupied by the city and its support spaces such as city and province. Suggests that biological needs in Kermanshah and Kermanshah Province is beyond the stability of regional self- reliant Compared with results similar to previous findings indicate that significant points The ecological footprint of metropolitan Tehran , Tabriz University of Sassan Pour in approximately 2.46 hectares in 2007 has been calculated In this study, the largest food footprint is allocated to Approximately 0.9 acres and is estimated Overall footprint of Tehran Metropolis is 0.64 hectares more than in Kermanshah Since consumer groups to calculate the ecological footprint of these two cities are not similar Perhaps the overall footprint than they seem somewhat pointless, But a comparison of individual cases, such as transportation and food , which is the same in both cities , Represents the fundamental point is that consumption patterns are largely similar Consistent with these results This research also indicates that High ecological footprint of food consumption in Kermanshah to share food with 1.22 hectare and other consumer items has been calculated in this study Share of food are far less The minimum land required for waste disposal approximately 0.000006 hectares or 0.06m2 .
Since Iran's biological capacity is 0.8 acres 1.82 -hectare ecological footprint means that if all the Iranian city of Kermanshah. because Kermanshahi residents take to the space over 2.275 times the tolerable biological capacity is needed .In other words can be stated that the current trend continues, consumption Kermanshah city for food , energy and land needed to absorb carbon dioxide The space required is about 180 times its current area. This means that if current consumption trends continue the way in the future No other natural environment and local population needs to be greater support for the provision of these needs will require Methods and strategies used in this study And results that are obtained Can the study of other In every corner of the world, especially in the field of environmental science and geographic areas to be used.