عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
There are some significant differences from the point of view of welfare and development between a part of the country which has an important geographical region such as border areas and main population centers. This can be due to reasons such as being far from the center, geographical solitude and under-development. In spite of the of capacities of central areas of the country, there are no social and economical indicators in optimal level and its promotion to national average of indicators level needs a lot of investments and measures. Definitely, it takes time for such regions to develop and the government to fulfill its responsibilities. Therefore, analyzing the socio-economical indicators of border areas and considering its relation with the increase and reduction of smuggling through planning of land preparation can be an effective step in the path of sustainable development in border areas such as Kurdistan, Boushehr , Sistan and Balouchestan provinces.
Due to the nature of the issue and reviewed components, the research method is documental and methodically it is descriptive-analytic and the tool is used was questionnaire. In analytical method, descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. Accordingly, by using "SWOT" model, the current position of the studied areas, advantages and disadvantages, opportunities, and threats were evaluated and eventually solutions are suggested to achieve the priorities based on orientation of preparation. Statistical society being studied is eleven offices and organizations concerned with increase and decrease of smuggling in border areas such as Kurdistan, Boushehr, Sistan and Balouchestan which are somehow involved with the issue. A sample of 165 officials participated in the study. Based on Cochran formula, 55 experts working in organizations that dealt with smuggling took a questionnaire and provided the data for answering the research questions. For each province 5 experts participated in the study.
Results and Discussion
In this part of the research, to get to know the four strategic factors, all the documents and books related to smuggling and currency in the mentioned provinces were studied. Then by filtering, summarization, combination and summarize the findings, a comprehensive list was developed. Some 17 internal strategic factors (9 advantages and 8 disadvantages) and 19 external strategic factors (9 opportunities and 10 threats) were identified and a value was given to each according to the importance and ranking.
According to the participants (state agencies experts), the most important advantages of their province were ranked as 1) being placed in transit route with a relative weight of %233, 2) existence of sufficient labor force with a relative weight of %227, 3) Pole crop with a relative weight of %198, 4) existence of minerals and mineral-rich Arctic resources with a relative weight of %193. The following rankings are; the frontier cooperative, facilities and development of processing industries, border markets, relative security, export handicrafts.
The most important disadvantages of these three provinces were 1) Profitability due to the gross price of goods between the neighbor countries and the Islamic Republic of Iran with a relative weight of %328, 2) Low quality of life and lack of adequate resources for suitable and legal subsistence with a relative weight of %317, and 3) poverty and deprivation and lack of industrial centers and labor absorption in the region and consequently Attitudes toward labor trafficking as job easy, low risk and high income with a relative weight of %317. Unfair distribution of facilities and remoteness from major population centers and development axes of the country with a relative weight of %302 is the fourth. Lack of private sector investment, rapid growth in population and especially the urban population and the actual lack of response capabilities of these areas to the frontier needs of subsistence, cultural fabric of the families, change of social value system in considering smuggling as a violation, the low level of education and training are next ranks.
The most important opportunities being studied are:
Excellent conditions for the enterprise role of provinces in the national commercial.
And external transit with a relative weight of %242 is above all and ranked first. Enjoyment of economic and geostrategic, position with the relative weight of %231 is the second. Increasing importance to creativity and innovation with a relative weight of %215 is the third .Using the capacity of young and educated workforce with A relative weight of %202 is the next. Expand the university's role in solving social problems, strengthen national identity and convergence, proximity with neighboring countries, ability of certain economic exchanges, interests of investors to participate in an area are the next rankings.
Having spirit of consumerism rather than production-oriented spirit with a relative weight of %234 is the most important threat in these provinces. Competition between regional and extra regional countries to seize market with a relative weight of %205 is next. Culture of disobeying the rule with a relative weight of %199 is ranked as the third. Cultural isolation - social border with a relative weight of %198 is the fourth. Undermine the economic security with a relative weight of %192 stands at lower rank. Loss of social capital (reduced correlation, security and social cohesion), Expanding the underground economy, the immigration of skilled labor and impact of regional, the relative affinity and causative relationships between residents of the two sides of the border, increasing involvement of ethnic and tribal are the next.
Economic development of border areas and increasing economic welfare and income of the frontiers through healthy economic activities and government support and investment on smuggling can have a positive impact. On the other side, through healthy economic activities and government support and investment in border areas subject to lack of gross differences in economic in two sides of the border can also have an impact on communication function which has a positive impact on decreasing smuggling. Government support for investment in small industries in border areas, Enable cross-border tourist areas, having border markets… are those methods which can have an impact on increasing legal transactions and reduce smuggling. Thus the need for regional land use preparation and planning can be doubled. Since from one side it has helped balance the socio-cultural development of the areas and looking at the neighbor countries, it has provided the ability to develop and promote the economic relationship between these lands with other areas .On the other side, it increases a presence of comprehensive plan of capabilities, opportunities, weaknesses and threats in each region.