بررسی ابعاد حقوقی قوانین امنیّت شهری و عملکرد مسئولان در ساماندهی معضلات امنیّتی شهروندان (مطالعه‎ی موردی: منطقه‎ی 13 شهر تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکده ی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

از پیامدهای ناگوار رشد ب یرویه ی شهرها، افزایش جرایم شهری است. با توجه به شرایط
فیزیکی موجود در شهرها، آلودگی صوتی و آلودگی هوا، شرایط زیست محیطی نامناسب،
شلوغی و تراکم جمعیت و...، شهرها آماده ی تبدیل شدن به مکانهای وقوع جرم هستند . با
وجود تأثیر عوامل مختلف در زندگی شهری، امنیت مهمترین عامل برای اسکان شهروندان در
یک محیط و محلّه ی شهری است. بدیهی است امنیت شهری نیز مانند تمام مسائل دیگر
شهر، پیرو قوانین و مقرراتی است که در آن زمینه تصویب م یشود. در این پژوهش، قوانین و
مقررات شهری مصوب ایران مورد بررسی قرار گرفته تا مشخّص شود، در این قوانین تا چه
میزان به ایجاد کالبد شهری امن توجه شده است. سپس به کمک پرسش نامه میزان رعایت
قوانین مصوب در زمینه ی امنیت شهری در منطقه ی 13 شهر تهران بررسی شده است. نتایج
بررسی های پژوهش نشان داد که در قوانین شهری ایران هیچ قانونی با عنوان ایجاد کالبد
شهری امن وجود ندارد، ولی در روح و محتوای برخی از قوانین به طور غیرمستقیم به ایجاد فرم
کالبدی امن اشاره شده و با رعایت درست قوانین فوق، امنیت شهری نیز برقرار خواهد شد .
نتایج حاصل از پرس شنامهها نیز بیانگر آن است که عملکرد شهرداری در اجرای قوانینی که
به طور غیرمستقیم باعث ارتقای امنیت منطقه میشود، کم بوده و بر اساس طیف لیکرت در
تمامی موارد رقمی پایینتر از 3 (متوسط) داشته است؛ اما همین عملکرد ضعیف، نقش بسیار
مهمی درکاهش ناامنی منطقه داشته است؛ به گونه ای که ارزیابی مردم از تأثیر عملکرد
شهرداری حتّی با دامنه ی ضعیف در تمامی موارد امنیتی مورد پرسش، بالاتر از میزان متوس ط
بوده است. همچنین آزمون تی نیز این موضوع را نشان داد که عملکرد شهرداری بسیار
پایی نتر از میزان احساس ناامنی مردم است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Legal Aspects of Urban Security and Performance of Authorities in Organizing Security Problems of Citizens (Case Study In Tehran, 13th Municipal Region)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rasoul Afzali 1
  • Sanaz Zahiri MirAbadi 2
  • Sakineh Bazli 2
  • Davood Eyvazlu 3
1 Associate Prof. in Political Geography, University of Tehran
2 M.A in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran
3 M.A in Geography and Urban Planning, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
One of the deplorable results of urban growth is an increase in the number of crimes in urban
areas. Regarding physical circumstances of the cities, they are ready to provide a place
susceptible to happening of crimes. These circumstances include noise and air pollution,
inappropriate environmental situations, over population, and etc. Although there are different
factors that affect urban life, security is the most important element in a settlement either in an
urban region or in a neighborhood. It is evident that urban security, like any other issues, is
influenced by ratified rules and regulations. In this study an attempt is made to examine Iran’s
ratified civil rules and regulation to see to what extent creating a safe city has been regarded in
these rules. After that, the extent of observing the passed rules in the field of urban security in
the 13th municipal region of Tehran has been studied by questionnaire data.
Methodology
In this research, after posing the question, some preliminary studies have been carried out for a
literature review. By referring to library reference data, the required information has been 
wroten down on index cards for further analysis. Then using Cochran formula, two hundred
forty questionnaires have been gathered for the 13th municipal region of Tehran. The results
have been analyzed through SPSS and Excel software by T-test for a comparison between the
municipality performance and insecurity feelings of citizens.
Results and Discussion
The survey results indicate that there is no law entitled as establishment of a secure urban area
in Iran but it is implicitly refered to as the creation of a secure form as implications in some
rules. The review of the mentioned rules can provide a foundation for civil security. The results
of the questionnaire also indicate that the municipality has not a proper performance. The
enhancement in the security of the region was not sufficient according to Likert spectrum; it was
lower than three in average. But these incompetent performance plays a prominent role that
reduce insecurity of the area so that evaluation of the people about the influence of municipality
performance, even in allow level in all the questioned security items, was above the average.
Conclusion
According to the questionnaire answers about the research questions, three hypotheses have
been tested and we came to the followings. First hypothesis: it seems that sufficient attention is
not paid on urban security in verified laws of Iran urbanization (especially in Tehran).
According to the investigations on the civil ratified laws, there is no explicit article relating to
urban security. Therefore, the first hypothesis is proved. However, the exact investigation of the
laws will result in the cases where as they are observed precisely, the urban security will also
enjoy their benefits. So it can be said that attention is just implicitly paid to social security issue
in the content of some civil laws. Regarding the second hypothesis, it seems that the
performance of Tehran municipality did not influence the enhancement of the regional security
(especially in 13th municipal region). As it was stated, to answer the above mentioned
hypothesis, 240 questionnaires were completed in the area. Regarding municipality
performence, unfortunately no item was evaluated as good as required. Regarding the actions in
all cases the relevant number was below the average according to Likert spectrum. So the
hypothesis is proved. Regarding the third hypothesis, it seems that the ratified laws available in
the area of civil security has not played noticeable role for enhancement of the 13th region
security. According to the results of the questionnaires, in all the 13 cases questioned and
inferred from ratified rules, the people satisfaction with insecurity reduction in the region was
above three (according to Likert spectrum). It means that it was above the average, so the
hypothesis is rejected. So, the relative enhancement of security in the region is restricted as the
result of the amount of legal articles. Therefore, the security will be enhanced due to an increase
in quantity of laws and a better performence of the municipality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Civil Security
  • Urban Planning Rules and Regulations
  • Tehran 13th Municipal Region
  • Municipality Actions
  • Insecurity Feeling