تحرکات جمعیت در نواحی جغرافیایی ایران و پیامدهای آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد و عضو قطب علمی مطالعات برنامه‌ریزی روستایی دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

3 کارشناس ارشد جامعه شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران شمال

چکیده

چگونگی توزیع مکانی جمعیت که در نتیجه تحرکات مکانی انسان بوجود می‌آید، از مباحث مهم ساختار جمعیت می‌باشد. اولین سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن در سال 1335، جمعیت کشور را معادل 18954704 نفر برآورد کرده است. سرشماری‌های بعدی در سال‌های 45، 55، 65، 75 ، 85 و 90 انجام گرفته که بر اساس آنها جمعیت کشور به ترتیب، 25788722، 33708744، 49445000، 60055000 ، 70495872 و 75149669 نفر بوده است. این تعداد جمعیت را برای بررسی دقیق‌تر می‌توان در قالب نواحی جغرافیایی تقسیم‌بندی نمود و پراکندگی آنها را مورد بررسی قرار داد. شواهد نشان می‌دهد که جمعیت ایران توزیعی نامتعادل دارد که ناشی از عوامل متنوع طبیعی، اقتصادی، اجتماعی، تاریخی و سیاسی است. از آنجا که عوامل مذکور اثر همدیگر را تشدید یا خنثی نموده، تعیین تأثیر جداگانه آنها امکان پذیر نیست. هدف این پژوهش شناخت تحرکات مکانی جمعیت ایران و پیامدهایی که این تحرکات می‌تواند به دنبال داشته باشد، می‌باشد. روش مورد استفاده روش توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و منابع و اطلاعات لازم به صورت مروری از منابع کتابخانه‌ای و اسنادی شامل کتاب‌ها، مقالات و آمارنامه‌ها جمع‌آوری گردیده و در نهایت با توجه به سؤالات تحقیق، مورد استفاده قرار می‌گیرند. نتایج بدست آمده نشان می‌دهد که در توزیع مکانی جمعیت ایران، عوامل محیطی، اجتماعی، اقتصادی و سیاسی نقش مهمی دارند. بدین نحو که تعداد جمعیت ایران، از غرب به شرق و از شمال به جنوب روند نزولی دارد که این نحوه‌ی پراکنش ناشی از عوامل محیطی (توپوگرافی، بارندگی، خاک حاصلخیز و منابع آب و...)، عوامل اقتصادی (اشتغال، درآمد، فرصت‌های اشتغال و...)، عوامل سیاسی (سیاستگذاری‌های دولتی، سرمایه‌گذاری‌های دولت و...) عوامل اجتماعی (مهاجرت، پیوندهای خویشاوندی، جاذبه‌های مذهبی و...) و... می‌باشد. این نحوه پراکنش جمعیت، می‌تواند پیامدها و اثرات مختلفی را به دنبال داشته باشد، مثلاً در برخی از مناطق افزایش مهاجرت مردم به نواحی دیگر موجب رهاشدن خدمات و امکانات شده و در نتیجه سرمایه‌گذاری‌های دولتی و خصوصی بلااستفاده رها می‌گردند. همچنین این نحوه‌ی پراکندگی جمعیت موجب بالارفتن تراکم در برخی مناطق مثل استان‌های تهران، گیلان، مازندران شده که این افزایش تراکم، خود می‌تواند فشار بر بهره‌برداری از منابع را افزایش داده و آسیب‌های زیست محیطی را به دنبال داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Population Dynamics in Geographic Regions of Iran and its Consequences

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Ghadiri Masoum 1
  • Hamid Reza Baghiyani 2
  • Motahare Ghadiri Masoum 3
1 Prof. in Geography, University of Tehran & Center of Excellent Rural Development, Tehran
2 Ph.D. Candidate in Geography & Urban Planning, University of Tehran
3 M.A. in Sociology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Spatial structure of population is an important issue in regional studies. Iran population has
unbalanced and unsuitable distribution. In some places population is dense and in some other
areas it is sparse. The unbalanced and disproportional distribution can be attributed to various
factors that can be divided into a variety of categories such as natural, economic, social,
political, historical, cultural and etc. Development of car industries and promotion of trade,
construction and development of rural areas and new towns in different ways has a new era of
development and population displacement. Influx of rural migrants to urban areas and
concentration of population in cities and small towns led to numerous inconsistencies in the
distribution of population in Iran. The high population growth in one hand and the implications
and consequences of large population on the other hand are important factors influencing
population-based studies and population movements in the geographical areas.
In this study, an attempt has been made to study the geographical areas with population
change and effective factors. The consequences of this change are analyzed. The questions
considered in this study are as follows:
1. Are crucial demographic factors such as population growth and the youth literacy rate
in terms of active population and employment rates various in different areas?
2. Is the process of migration in recent decades influencing environmental policies and
planning?
Could the current trend of population distribution in different regions lead to an increase in
the gap between wealthy and deprived areas?
Methodology
The method of this research is descriptive - analytic. To obtain information in the research we
used library documents and statistics as materials. Then, demographic data were used
individually and based on comparisons between different periods.
Results and Discussion
According to the findings and discussions, the following research questions are discussed.
1. Are crucial demographic factors such as population growth and the youth literacy rate in
terms of the active population and employment rates various in different areas?
Population growth: based on the last General Population and Housing Census in 2011,
population of Iran was 75.149 million. This show an increase of 4.65 million compared with
2006 Census. In other words, the annual population growth was 1.2 percent in the same period.
Young people: the young population increased from 2.918 in 1956 to 17.738 2006. The
proportion of young population to total population to come in the year 1956 was 15.4%, and for
the year 1966 it was 15.2%, for 1976 it was 19%, and for 1986 it was 19%, for 1996 about
25.5%, and 25.2% for 2006.
The literacy rate: In Tehran province (83.8 percent), Semnan (80.8 percent), Isfahan
(80.2%), Yazd (79.2 percent) and Mazandaran (78.4%) and the highest number allocated to 6
years old and more educated in provinces of Sistan and Baluchistan (57.3 percent),Azarbayjan-
Gharby (69.9 percent), Kurdistan (70.3 percent), Khorasan Jonobi (71 percent), Koohkiluyeh
Boyer Ahmad (72.9 percent). The lowest number has been 6 years and more literate.
Growth rate of the active population is characterized byyoung and educated in Sistan-
Baluchistan province. This shows the highest rate of population growth and lowest levels of
education and low levels of the active population. The high percentage of unemployed is about
16.8 percent.
2. Is the process of migration in recent decades influencing environmental policies and
planning?
Recent immigration trends are more in the provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi and
Isfahan. Due to unique political status, more income and employment opportunities, easy access
and etc. Tehran has attracted the largest number of immigrants. Government policy was so that
caused many people to migrate to Tehran because of more facilities available.. So, it is clear that
immigration trends are influenced by environmental factors, and planning policies.
3. Could the current trend of population distribution in different regions lead to an increase in
the gap between wealthy and deprived areas?
Current trends indicate that the population distribution is mainly concentrated in
metropolitan centers due to the concentration of material and social capital. Different migrant
groups have a variety of living conditions. Most cities have immigration such as Tehran,
Mashhad and Isfahan. The high populated areas have more job opportunities for people and
attract more people from remote areas.
Conclusion
The results showed that the distribution of population of Iran, from West to East and from North
to South is influenced by environmental factors (topography, rainfall, soil and water resources
and etc), economic factors (income, employment opportunities, etc.), political factors
(government policies, government funding, etc.), and social factors (migration, kinship ties,
religious attractions, etc). The distribution of population may lead to different effects. For
example, in some areas, increased migration of people to other areas has led to a situation that
the facilities and services by public and private investments are left unused. The distribution of
population density is increasing in some areas such as the provinces of Tehran, Gilan,
Mazandaran. These increases in density could increase pressure on the utilization of resources
and environmental damage. In this review, in the form of three questions listed above we have
tried to check the movement of population and geographical areas and their consequences. The
results show that the geographic distribution of the population is strongly influenced by
environmental, economic, social, and political factors. Each of these aspects will consequently
lead to different effects.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geographic Area
  • Iran
  • population
  • Population Movements
  • Spatial distribution of population