تحلیل شاخص‌های اثرگذار بر توسعۀ اکوتوریسم در مناطق بیابانی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه‎ریزی شهری، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

با شنیدن نام بیابان، آنچه بیش از هر چیز دیگری در ذهن عام تصور خواهد شد، محیطی خشک، بی‎آب و عاری از پوشش گیاهی است که برای آن ارزش اکوسیستمی را متصور نمی‌شوند، در حالی‎که بیابان چالشی بوم‎شناختی در حیات کرۀ زمین است. درمقابل در تفکر سیستمی، بیابان نه‎تنها به‎دلیل وجود گونه‌هایی منحصربه‎فرد و توان اکولوژیکی ویژه نعمتی الهی به‎شمار می‎رود، بلکه قابلیت‌ها و ارزش‌های اقتصادی ـ اجتماعی آن، توان بالایی را برای این بوم‎زیست رقم‎زده است. این پژوهش برآن است تا با نگاه به جاذبه‌ها و قابلیت‌های زیستی و اقتصادی بیابان‌ها، ذهن را متوجه امکان‌سنجی جاذبه‌های بوم‎شناختی قابل سرمایه‌گذاری در بیابان‌های ایران و توجه به اکوتوریسم در این نواحی کند؛ زیرا بیابان یک منبع اقتصادی بی‎مانند و مستعد است که در راستای اهداف توسعۀ پایدار، موجب حفاظت زیستی و سودآوری اقتصادی این مناطق می‌شود. در پژوهش پیش رو، به‎منظور بررسی و تعیین ابعاد مختلف اکوتوریسم پایدار بیابان‌های ایران با کمک الگوریتم دلفی، به تعیین اهداف مورد نظر پرداخته شده است. برای تجزیه‎وتحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نظرات متخصصان مختلف، شاخص‌های اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست‌محیطی شناسایی و از تحلیل عاملی برای تفسیر داده‌ها استفاده شده است. یافته‌های تحلیل عاملی نشان‎دهندۀ آن است که پنج عامل گسترش مشارکت، تحول کالبدی، افزایش آگاهی محیطی، افزایش جمعیت و افزایش قیمت زمین با درصد واریانس 893/69، بیشترین آثار مثبت ناشی از تغییرات مربوط به پیامدهای اکوتوریسم نواحی بیابانی را تبیین می‌کنند و 107/30 درصد مربوط به پیامدهای منفی بوده است. این امر نشان‎دهندۀ اثرگذاری پیامدهای مثبت بیش از پیامدهای منفی است. با توجه به ابعاد و شاخص‎های اکوتوریسم، با اطمینان به‎نسبت خوبی می­توان انتظار داشت که اکوتوریسم زمینه‎های رونق اقتصادی ـ اجتماعی جوامع بیابانی و حفاطت از طبیعت بیابان را به‎همراه داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Effective Factors on Ecotourism Development in Desert Areas of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Adel Sepehr 1
  • Azam Safarabadi 2
1 Assistant Prof. Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM)
2 Ph.D. Candidate in Geography & Urban Planning, University of Isfahan
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
By hearing the name of desert, more than anything else, cruel, coarse and dry environment is
imagined. In the general approach, desert is known as an ecosystem with water scarcity, rare of
plant cover and sand covered areas. The opposite of this approach rises from a systematic
approach to the desert landscape which involves high potential of desert with special socioeconomic
conditions and eco-geomorphic landforms. In the cultural perspective, the deserts are
cradle of prophets of Allah. Revelation voice has been received by messengers in the sand
dunes, desert caves and dust storms. So, deserts are natural-cultural heritages for each land. In
this article, the capability of desert as a great source for ecotourism activities which leads to
sustainable development of these environments has been reviewed. In order to analyze the data,
indicators of economic, environmental and social have been recognized using expert opinion.
Factor analysis was used for interpreting the data. The results of the factor analysis showed that
five factors contribute to the development, physical development, environmental awareness,
population growth and rising land prices.
Methodology
The present study was designed to investigate and assess various aspects of ecotourism,
sustainable desert, while taking advantage of a library of information and resources. This
research was carried out with the help of the Delphi algorithm to determine the objectives and 
various aspects of sustainable ecotourism in Iran. Taking advantage of the experts, dimensions
and indicators of ecotourism was determined according to Table 3. For the method 15 experts in
five universities (Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan, Yazd and Shiraz) were selected and a questionnaire
was filled. People were asked to answer the aspects (both positive and negative) of developing
ecotourism in arid desert country in three ecological (environmental), economic and social
issues. The data of experts, the economic component of 11, 23 and 14 elements of
environmental and social factors were identified and separated.
Results and Discussion
As mentioned in the methodology, in order to examine ecotourism impacts on wilderness areas,
11 economic components, and 23 social components and 14 environmental components were
identified. Factor analysis was used to determine their effects. The first step is to ensure the
correct application of this method. KMO of the tool was equal to 0.795. The value demonstrates
acceptable internal consistency of the components. Bartlett's test with a significance level of
acceptable (sig <0.000) components showed suitable for performing factor analysis.
Table 1. Results KMO and Bartlett's test for performance analysis
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0.759
Bartlett's Test of Sphericity
Approx.Chi-Square 1.312
Df 435
Sig 0.000
Conclusion
Ecotourism potential in arid areas is important to achieve stable development and become an
important component of economic development in the deserts. The recent spread of tourism in
desert areas has resulted in many positive and negative effects. The present study examines the
effects of ecotourism on the sustainable development of desert areas. Thus, 44 elements in three
groups of economic, social and environmental issues were studied. Results showed that the first
factor, the development of partnerships, particularly with the amount of 8.355, 24.325% of the
total variance is explained by the components. The highest value of this factor that increase
people's participation in natural resource management on the sustainable development of
ecotourism is for desert. The amount of 6.534, 17.031% of the variance components are
allocated to managing physical changes. Therefore, this component represents the physical
changes that may contribute to the development of ecotourism in desert areas. Increase in the
environmental awareness has the value of 5.721, 12.304% of the total variance and factors
influencing its components are associated with providing public and professional educational
opportunities. Population growth factor with a value of 3.598, explain about 8.5% of the total
variance. Ultimately, increase in the amount of land prices, especially 2.3, accounted for about
7.6% of the total variance of the variables. Evaluation results show that ecotourism combine
positive and negative impacts and host communities and local natural heritage. The challenges
of ecological tourism expand it, without destroying the natural attractions. Obviously, the  development of ecotourism in sensitive natural areas with a lack of proper planning and management can be a threat to the integrity of ecosystems and cultures.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Desert
  • Ecotourism
  • Geotop
  • Iran Sustainable