تحلیل سرمایۀ اجتماعی شهروندان و تأثیر آن بر کیفیت زندگی مورد مطالعه: محله‎های شهر میاندوآب

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشیار گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه ارومیه

3 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه‎ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سنجش کیفیت زندگی، پیچیده و تحت تأثیر عوامل فراوانی است. در این پژوهش از تأثیر شاخص‎های سرمایۀ اجتماعی بر کیفیت زندگی شهروندان استفاده شده است. بر این اساس با توجه به مطالعه ادبیات نظری مربوط به کیفیت زندگی و سرمایۀ اجتماعی، چارچوب مفهومی متشکل از پنج مؤلفه برای سرمایۀ اجتماعی که متغیرهای مستقل و نُه مؤلفه برای کیفیت زندگی که متغیرهای وابسته پژوهش هستند، برای تحلیل تأثیر شاخص‎های سرمایۀ اجتماعی بر کیفیت زندگی شهروندان محلات شهر میاندوآب، تدوین و مبنای پژوهش قرار گرفته است. درواقع هدف پژوهش، سنجش تأثیرپذیری سطح کیفیت زندگی شهروندان بر مبنای شاخص‎های سرمایۀ اجتماعی است. نوع پژوهش کاربردی و روش بررسی آن، توصیفی ـ  تحلیلی است. جامعۀ آماری را سی محلۀ شهر میاندوآب شکل داده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز برای بررسی رابطۀ سرمایۀ اجتماعی و کیفیت زندگی که شامل  سی‎ونه شاخص سرمایۀ اجتماعی (متغیر مستقل) و سی‎وپنج شاخص کیفیت زندگی (متغیر وابسته) است، از ابزار پرسش‎نامه و سرشماری عمومی نفوس مسکن، سالنامه‌های آماری، سازمان‌ها و نهادهای مربوطه جمع‎آوری شده است. نتایج نشان می‎دهد از دید سطح سرمایۀ اجتماعی، محله‎های 20، 22 و 17 در بالاترین سطح و محله‎های 16، 13 و 23 در پایین‎ترین سطح قرار دارند. همچنین از دید سطح کیفیت زندگی، محله‎های 20، 7 و22 در بالاترین سطح و محله‎های 13، 23 و 16 در پایین‎ترین سطح قرار دارند. یافته‎ها نشان می‎دهد که محلاتی که سطح سرمایۀ اجتماعی بالاتری داشتند، از سطح کیفیت زندگی بالاتری برخوردار بودند. همچنین از پنج مؤلفۀ سرمایۀ اجتماعی، مؤلفه مشارکت اجتماعی بیشترین تأثیر (612/0) را بر کیفیت زندگی داشته  و چهار مؤلفۀ دیگر سرمایۀ اجتماعی نیز، رابطۀ معناداری با کیفیت زندگی داشته‎اند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Social Capital and its Impacts on Quality of Life of Citizens Case Study: Neighborhood of Miyandoab City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mir Najaf Mousavi 1
  • Mohammad Hasani 2
  • Ayoub Manouchehri 3
1 Assistant Prof., Dep. of Geography, University of Urmia
2 Associate Prof., Dep. of Geography, University of Urmia
3 Ph.D. Candidate in Geography & Urban Planning, University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Regarding only physical aspects by engineering approach, regardless of social and economic
values and goals, made philosophy of cities as a place to live faced with serious doubts. There
are criticisms against this type of planning that focuses on the goals and values. Prevalent
thinking about "livable city" has made a major revision of the goals and methods of planning
and alternative thinking to deal with this phenomenon. This is because of profound changes in
contemporary urban areas such as changes in housing styles, leisure, communication, etc. In the
past half century, there were changes in decision-making procedures and policies in urban
planning from the foundation. No way is left except a fundamental reconsideration of the
content and methods of rational planning. Therefore, city has an index of human life in the form
of structured and methodical. Humans interact with their environment, such as containerized
within the urban environment. This interaction requires the provision of basic aspects of life in
order to make a sustainable living environment in the city. Such a change in the attitude of
urban life led to new concepts in the literature of urban planning. Following this process, the
concept of quality of life was stated for the first time in 1966 in a book titled "Social Indicators"
by Raymond Bauer. Since of quality of life is a multifaceted concept, partially influenced by
time and individual and social values, it includes objective and external, conceptual and internal
aspects. Each of the studies has focused on aspects of quality of life. In previous studies, it is 
one of the components of less interest in the effects of social capital on quality of life. The
purpose of this paper is to analyze quality of life and effectiveness of social capital theory. In
Other words, this study has tried to analyze the effects of social capital on quality of life of
citizens. In other words, the main question is, therefore, whether is there any differences
between social capital and quality of life in neighborhoods of Miyandoab? What is the
connection there?
Methodology
According to the research objectives and components, the type of this research is practical and
the methodology is descriptive- analytical. A survey of 30 neighborhoods in Miyandoab,
according to the administrative division - is political. Data collection tool is quenstionnaires for
the study of the relationship between social capital and quality of life that includes 39 indicators
of social capital as independent variables and 35 indicators of of quality of life as the dependent
variable. Survey method is used to collect the data. The instrument used was a questionnaire
study. Since the aim was to investigate all City Neighborhoods separately, we used stratified
random sampling method. First, based on the total population the number of samples was
specified. Cronbach's alpha was used to obtain the reliability of the research instrument. The
value of 0.77 for the tool suggests that this tool has very good reliability. To obtain validity of
the questionnaire we used for factor analysis by KMO. KMO value of 0.75 for this tool indicats
a good level of validity. Some of the information has been gathered from the Population Census
of Housing, data from annals, organizations, and institutions concerned. For data analysis
TOPSIS model was used to evaluate the ability of neighborhoods of Miyandoab City. The
relationships between the variables were also tested using inferential statistical tests such as
correlation, multiple regression and path analysis. The statistical population was 123,081 people
according to the 1390 census. Cochran's formula was used to determine sample size. The
sample size was with 95% confidence for the 382 questionnaires. This number is collected as a
percentage of the neighborhoods population.
Results and Discussion
Using TOPSIS model with entropy weighting method to rank the City Neighborhoods
Miyandoab was revealed to be in the venture capital community. Based on the studies done
neighborhoods of 20, 22, 17, 29, 7, and 26 were identified as the most desirable neighborhoods.
These neighborhoods in terms of components of social capital were the highest in the City
Neighborhoods of Miyandoab. Neighborhoods of 23, 16 and 3 as marginal neighborhoods have
been identified as low levels in social capital.
TOPSIS model has also been used to assess quality of life in urban neighborhoods of
Miyandoab. For this assessment, the first step is weighting demographic characteristics,
education, leisure, engagement and solidarity, health and safety, economic, physical, and
environmental infrastructure. Neighborhoods utility rates were determined for each of the
indicators. Studies show that neighborhoods 20, 7 and 22 as neighborhoods with high levels of
social capital than other neighborhoods have now high quality of life. Results show that when 
the components of social capital in the neighborhoods of the situation are favorable, these
neighborhoods are more desirable in terms of of quality of life. According to what was stated in
the discussion of social capital, this can be concluded that neighborhoods in terms of social
capital indicators are more favorable thanin terms of quality of life. As a result, there is a direct
relationship between these two factors and it can be recommended for future researches.
Conclusion
What can be concluded from this study is that the way of life of local communities are desirable.
In this study it was found that the neighborhoods in terms of social capital indicators have more
favorable position and in terms of quality of life are better. What is the social capital that one
neighborhoon more favorable relative to others. One of those is dating of neighborhoods and the
number of years that the residents living in those neighborhoods. Homogeneity of these
neighborhoods in economic, social and cultural aspects has led citizens to have more social
interaction. These characteristics have led to a general index of social capital such as trust,
cooperation, and adjacency relations. As a result, indirect effect is to create a better quality of
life. According to the results, it can be proposed that the preservation of local communities
dating can be attempted A new city neighborhood has been appeared in recent decades, because
most of these neighborhoods residents are young couples. In terms of social capital indicators
are these new neighborhoods are weaker than the neighborhoods anymore, and the quality of
life of these neighborhoods is lower than others.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Miyandoab City
  • quality of life
  • Social capital
  • Spatial analysis