کانون‎های جغرافیایی مدیریت جریان سرمایه در مقیاس جهانی و ظهور مفهوم نقاط استراتژیک مالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

4 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه یزد

چکیده

اندیشمندان ژئوپلیتیک طی سدۀ گذشته، همواره درصدد بوده‎اند که به فراخور شرایط طبیعی و انسانی مناطق مختلف و با ارائۀ استدلال‎های لازم، اهمیت سیاسی برخی کانون‎ها و نقاط جغرافیایی را پُررنگ‎تر کرده و سیاستمداران را برای نفوذ، تسلط و مدیریت این‎گونه فضاها، ترغیب کنند. بدیهی است اهمیت سیاسی مکان‎ها و فضاهای مختلف در طول زمان ثابت ‎نبوده و به‎ویژه، ممکن است تحت تأثیر عوامل انسان‎ساخت، دچار ارتقا و دگرگونی شود. در این راستا، توسعۀ فزایندۀ جهانی‎شدن و شبکه‎ای‎شدن فعالیت‎های اقتصادی، سبب اهمیت‎یافتن نهادهای مدیریت جریان‎های سرمایه و پول در مقیاس جهانی و مکان‎های استقرار آنها شده است؛ زیرا این نهادها پتانسیل‎ها و توانایی‎های فزاینده‎ای در تأثیرگذاری بر دیگر مکان‎ها و فضاهای جغرافیایی دارند و با توجه به وابستگی روزافزون حکومت‎ها به آنها، اهمیت فزاینده‎ای برای آنها تصور می‎شود. در نوشتار پیش رو، این پرسش مطرح است که آیا امکان تطبیق تعریف مفهوم مکان و فضای استراتژیک با مکان‎های کنترل و مدیریت جریان‎های سرمایه و تولید در مقیاس جهانی وجود دارد؟ در سیر انجام این پژوهش، کوشش‎شده با رویکردی توصیفی ـ تحلیلی، این نهادها در دو قالب نهادهای مالی ـ اقتصادی جهانی و شرکت‎های چندملیتی مورد بحث و بررسی قرار گرفته و سپس شاخص‎های استراتژیک این مکان‎ها و نقاط با تعریف مفهوم مکان و فضای استراتژیک تطبیق داده شود. یافته‎های پژوهش نشان می‎دهد که امروزه نقاط راهبری و مکان‎های راهبری و هدایت جریان سرمایه با توجه به گسترش فزایندۀ فرایند جهانی‎شدن اقتصاد و عملکردی که در این فرایند برعهده دارند، از اهمیت استراتژیک برخودارند و می‎توان آنها را به‎مثابۀ مصادیق جدیدی از مفهوم مکان و فضای استراتژیک پذیرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geographical Hubsof Financial Outflow Management and Emergence of Financial Strategy Points

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Hafeznia 1
  • Zahra Ahmadipoor 2
  • Ezzatolah Ezzati 3
  • Ehsan Lashgari 4
1 Prof., Dep. of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Associate Prof., Dep. of Political Geography, Tarbiat Modarres University
3 Associate Prof., Dep. of Political Geography, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Research and Science Branch
4 Assistant Prof., Dep. of Political Geography, University of Yazd
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Geopolitical thinkers have been struggled consistently. This made distinct the political
importance of some regions or points in the world map.In other words, these experts with
considering human and natural circumstances of different regions and with presentation of
geopolitical reasoning introduced the very important regions or places entitled strategic region
or places. Moreover,theyencouraged the politicians and decision makers for dominance and
infiltrating to these geographical spaces.
From the other side,it is clear that the political importance of regions and places is not fixed
during time and especially human made factorscan change the importance of different regions
and this has caused the concept of strategic regions as dynamic concept. Thus, these
factorscould be creating new important regions or points that there is not being in the past
time.In this regard, in the former century the concept of strategic region was entitled to very
important military regions or places. But, in recent decades with new upheaval of political
circumstances, we could outline new important regionsor places in the entire world that do not
have only military significant. For example, inpast three decades, all states in the worldhave
been faced with financial outflows management institutions in global scale in some 
development states.Theyhave very powerful efficiencies to affecteconomical polices of the
states. Therefore, other states could not violate the economical approaches and polices of these
institutions.With paying attention to functionalstates of these institutions, this question is posed
that could we consider these institutions as hot points in the political geography of the world? In
the other words, could we take consider these institutions and their places as strategic place?
Methodology
This paper seeks to answer the question: “are there financial strategic places in the world? If
these factors are so, in this paper this question is posed that is there any possibility for
adjustment in the concept of strategic regions and places with places of finical management and
control flow of investment, financial and money in global scale?
In this paper with analysis and description approach we have struggled to make adjustments
between indicators of strategic regions and places and functions of economic global institutions
such as GAAT, World Bank, I.M.F and so on. In this way, at first stage atrusty and valid
bibliographywas used to explain the strategic regions concept. Then, with extraction of
functions and explaining about the management and conduction of financial outflow by global
financial institutions and combination of this functions and factors with indicators of strategic
region, we could introduce new meaning and examples about strategic region concept.
Results and Discussion
Globalization and increase in mutual rate in commercial and financial fields mayupgrade the
importance of some points on geographical space of development countries. In other words,
there are some economical institutions on this points where have effective impacts on other
geographical spaces.In fact, nowadays, we have been faced with economical outflows
interchange increasingly between thecountries with these points. Therefore, changing nature of
economic system hascaused global economic institutions that play very significant rolein the
world. Thus, at present, these institutions have very effective role in global power structure.
Obviously, principal reason for importance of these points consequent production or
management continuing outflow of money in these points and distribution of them to another
geographical space. It is clear that, this efficiency has been caused a kind of virtual state in these
points. Therefore, economic globalization processes have caused that whole of state in the world
feel involuntary from global authority financial institutions. These processes oblige the state that
complied from the policies of these institutions and they should adjust their economic program
with the goals of these institutions. Therefore, these institutions according to their importance
open new fields for geopolitical studies. Therefore, atpresent, financial management institutions
in global economy have very important placing in geopolitical studies.
Conclusion
The results of this research reveal that the places of financial management and control in global
scale, considering cumulative globalization process and for their roles in this process have
strategic importance.We could consider these places as strategic places.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • economic
  • Financial Outflow
  • Geopolitics
  • management
  • Strategic Location