اقیانوس منجمد شمالی، صحنۀ تقابل ژئواکونومیکی و ژئواستراتژیکی قدرت‎های بزرگ

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم تحقیقات

3 دانشجوی مقطع دکترای رشته جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، واحد علوم تحقیقات

چکیده

اهمیت قطب شمال در قرن حاضر از زمانی نمایان شد که روسیه یک فروند زیردریایی خود را در دوم اوت سال 2007، به ژرفای 4261 متری اقیانوس منجمد شمالی فرستاد و پرچم این کشور را در بستر این اقیانوس نصب کرد. درواقع این عمل روسیه، زمینه‎ساز مناقشه‎ای بزرگ بین کشورهای حاشیۀ قطب شمال شد و حقیقت یکی از نظریه‎های ژئوپلیتیکی قرن گذشته به‎نام «نئوماهانیزم» را بر همگان روشن کرد. این نوشتار در جست‎وجوی آن است که مشخص کند، حاکمیت بر اقیانوس منجمد شمالی به‎دلیل داشتن یک‎چهارم منابع هیدرو کربن جهان و همچنین کوتاه‎شدن مسیر هوایی و دریایی به‎دلیل گذشتن از دایرۀ عظیمه، سبب‎شده که قدرت‎های بزرگی همچون ایالات متحدۀ آمریکا و روسیه، بر سر تصاحب این منابع در حال رقابت و حتی تقابل با یکدیگر باشند؛ چرا که براساس نظریۀ نئوماهانیزم، در آینده کسی قدرت جهانی خواهد بود که بتواند بر این اقیانوس حاکمیت کامل داشته باشد. سؤال اینجاست که آیا ویژگی‎های ژئواکونومیکی اقیانوس منجمد شمالی، می‎تواند زمینۀ تقابل قدرت‎های بزرگی همچون ایالات متحدۀ آمریکا، روسیه، کانادا، نروژ و... را در این منطقه ایجاد کند؟ این پژوهش با بررسی توصیفی ـ تحلیلی، در نظر دارد با استفاده از نظریه‎های مطرح‎شده و تلفیق آنها و دست‎یابی بر یک چارچوب نظری جدید، به بررسی موضوع پژوهش بپردازد. به نظر می‎رسد اهداف کشورهای حاشیۀ این اقیانوس، به‎دلیل داشتن منابع بسیار عظیم و غنی در قرن حاضر، بر مفهوم ژئواکونومی منطبق شده‎اند؛ به همین سبب، اقیانوس منجمد شمالی را صحنۀ عملیات فرداهای دور نامیده‎اند و در برخی منابع و کتب علمی، لقب مدیترانۀ قطبی را برای آن برگزیده‎اند تا بار دیگر اقتصاد و در رأس آن انرژی را، منشأ تحولات استراتژیک قرار دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Arctic Ocean, Geo-economics and Geo Strategic Scene of Confront for Super Powers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Pishgahi Fard 1
  • Saeid Reza Khalkhali 2
  • Sajjad Karimi Pashaki 3
1 Prof., Dep. of Political Geography, University of Tehran
2 Ph.D. Candidate in Political Geography, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Research and Science Branch
3 Ph.D. Candidate in Political Geography, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Research and Science Branch
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The importance of the Arctic Ocean became obvious in this century when the Russia sent a
submarine to that place in august 2, 2007,in depth of 4261 meters and fixed her flag on the flat
of this ocean. In fact, this became a background for a great challenge between border countries
of the Arctic. The geopolitical theory of the last century which was named new Mahanism
became clear. This article tries to specify that governing over Arctic Ocean is a very important
subject for great powers like U.S.A., Russia, Canada, Norway, and etc.
Because this region has a quarter of hydrocarbon of the world and also the distance between
continents is so much shorter in this region by both ship and airplanes. So it causes that great
powers compete and even confront (face) to each other for taking more benefit of the region.
This is based on the ideas of new Mahanism and other ideas believing that the next superpower
is the country which could rule over this ocean. But it must be under the icebergs not over the
waters. This is the question do the geoeconomic conditions of the arctic could provide a
background for challenge among great powers like Russia U.S.A., Canada, and Norway? This
research wants to verify this idea with regard to the different views to reach a new conclusion.
Since the countries around this ocean have rich and great resources, it seems that they have 
important geoeconomic aims. That is why Arctic Ocean has been called the scene for very far
tomorrows. Some scientific books and sources chose the title of polar Mediterranean in order to
put economy in general and energy in particular as the main reason for strategic activities. The
North Pole provides a new scene for political affairs like Mediterranean sea in previous century.
Methodology
This study is a descriptive - analytical research aimed to describe the geographic characteristics
and uses of Geo-economics. Arctic resources, diverse and relevant maps and images for analysis
is consistent with the information received. This research attempts to answer the question: could
geoeconomical characteristics of the Arctic confront big powers like USA and Russia for the
region to establish?
Results and Discussion
Attitude change in the strategies of government has caused the government to consolidate power
and Geoeconomics as the main character, although they should be considered at the top of the
international scene. In addition to evaluation of the characteristics in the Arctic geopolitical
objectives in the Arctic neighbors and the strategies in this area have been examined by the
United States and Russia. According to various geopolitical theories, the Arctic is the next stage
of operations. Given the importance of water resources, the Arctic can create conflict between
the great powers.
Arctic's future strategic developments will play a major role in this area and this will reveal
truth of Neo-Mahanism theory. U.S.A. is seeking to register a new baseline in order to increase
its influence in the region. This region of Canada and stream leads to understanding of its
territorial waters. Russia on the other hand, because of the long shores presumes is the right
exploitation of the Arctic continental shelf. Potential Arctic coastal countries seek to ensure
energy security. Perhaps the great powers such as China and India want to meet their growing
needs. Geo-economics and Geo-strategic importance is a confrontation and conflict between the
great powers of the world.
Conclusion
Arctic's future strategic developments will play a major role in this area will reveal truth Neo-
Mahanism theory. U. S. looking to register a new baseline in order to increase its influence in
the region. This region of Canada and stream leading to it understands its territorial waters.
Russia on the other hand, because of the long shores presumes is the right exploitation of the
Arctic continental shelf. Potential Arctic coast Arctic countries to ensure energy security it
provides. Perhaps for the growing needs of the growing powers such as China and India meet.
Geo-economics and Geo-strategic importance and is therefore a confrontation and conflict
between the great powers of the world.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arctic Ocean
  • geo-economics
  • Polar Mediterranean
  • Scene for Operations
  • strategic