نگاهی جدید به عوامل مؤثر بر دسترسی(مطالعۀ موردی: شیراز،محلۀ معالی‎آباد و ملاصدرا)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قزوین

2 کارشناس ارشد شهرسازی، گروه معماری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد بوشهر

3 کارشناس ارشد شهرسازی، دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

دسترسی از مهم‎ترین خصوصیات یک شهر خوب به‎شمار می‎رود و امروزه، حل مسائل دسترسی در شهرها و بهبودبخشیدن به کیفیت آن، از اهداف عمدۀ شهرها و شهرسازی محسوب می‎شود. بسیار مهم است که بتوانیم قدرت انتخاب و تنوع را در دسترسی به فعالیت‌ها، منابع، اطلاعات و مکان‌های گوناگون، برای تمام اقشار جامعه فراهم کنیم. هدف از این پژوهش تعیین عوامل جدید تأثیرگذار بر دسترسی و شعاع دسترسی، به غیر از عوامل اشاره شده است که به ارائۀ تعریفی جدید از دسترسی می‎انجامد. همچنین فرضیه‎ای که نویسندگان آن دنبال می‎کنند، این است که به نظر می‎رسد برخی از ویژگی‎های فردی (مانند شرایط جسمی، سن، جنسیت)، وضعیت خانوادگی و عواملی چون سواد، دسترسی به اینترنت، شیوه‎های جدید تجارت و حضور دیگر افراد، همچنین عوامل وابستۀ مرتبط با حمل و نقل و عوامل محیطی، بر دسترسی و  به‎تبع آن، بر شعاع دسترسی به کاربری‎های شهری تأثیرگذار است. این پژوهش با توجه به اهداف بیان‎شده، از نوع پژوهش‎های کاربردی بوده و روش جمع‎آوری اطلاعات به‎صورت مطالعات اسنادی است و همچنین، روش‎های میدانی (پرسش‎نامه) و دلفی (مصاحبه با متخصصان) در این پژوهش به‎کار گرفته شده است. از مهم‎ترین نتایج این پژوهش می‎توان به توجه بیشتر مردان نسبت به زنان به عامل شلوغی و حضور دیگر افراد در مکان‎های مختلف، بالاتر بودن سواد، میزان استفاده از شیوه‎های جدید تجارت و تأثیر عامل حضور دیگران در بین مجردان نسبت به متأهلان و همچنین عدم تفاوت در شاخص‎های بیان‎شده، بین محلات معالی‎آباد و ملاصدرا اشاره کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A New Approach to the Factors Affecting Accessibility(Case Study: Shiraz, Ma'liabbad and Molasadra Neighborhoods)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Navid Saeidi Rezvani 1
  • Hamidreza Daneshpour 2
  • Amir Reza Daneshpour 3
1 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Islamic Azad University of Qazvin
2 M.A. Degree in Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Islamic Azad University of Bushehr
3 M.A Degree in Urbanism, Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Shiraz University
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Global, regional and local changes in cities are concrete and complicated totality. It is important
to look at urbanity principle and basics again, because if we don't begin such critique, we can't
find any solution for these urban problems in a changing turbulent world and consequently the
aim of urbanism for human welfare won't be achieved. Concept of access is considered as a
major scale for urbanity according to some theorists like Tom Terner and Kelvin Linch. Lich
says cities are constructed for sake of symbolic reasons at first and then they are constructed
because of defensive reasons. But, immediately it became clear that providing appropriate
accessibility in cities is a prominence. Accessibility includes access to other people, activities,
resources, services, information and places. Now it can be seen that yet accessibility is exposed
to conventional counteract. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating and recognizing access
concepts and its changes in the current world. In this study, authors follow the assumption that
some personal characteristics such as physical status, age, gender, familial status, literacy,
access to internet, new ways of trade, and attendance of other people affect access to urban
utilities and consequently its extent. 
Methodology
In current study, both analytical and descriptive methods have been used simultaneously. In
theoretical viewpoints and review of preceding studies, descriptive method is used. In the next
stage, analytical method has been used to approach casual relations and to recognize attachment
and relations between variables and indices. In this stage, at first required data have been
compiled from selected statistical population employing surveys and questionnaire and after
classification and derivation, they have been investigated and analyzed consciously by one- or
two-variable statistical methods using SPSS application. Statistical population of this study is all
citizens of Ma'li abbad and Molasadra. By using Cochran formula and Lin table, sample mass
was equals to 383 persons. For more certainty, 400 persons have been investigated. In validity
study of evaluation tools, some experts have been consulted. Cronbach alpha coefficient and
pre-test calculation have been used for reliability of evaluation tools. The alpha obtained from
final questionnaire is 0.848 which is greater than 0.7 indicating high internal attachment of
species.
Results and Discussion
With regard to familiarity with new methods of trade, 218 persons (57%) have little familiarity
and the remaining has moderate and higher. This shows that most people are not familiar with
new methods of trade including online purchases; Ebay and etc. against conventional methods
such as direct referral to meet their needs. Furthermore, considering people's tendency to use
new methods of trade against conventional techniques, 70% of them have little tendency and
only 30% have great tendency to use new methods. In relation to the use of new methods of
trade in the future by knowing this point that new methods bring about faster and more
convenient access to required services and goods from all parts of the world, 71% of people
have used it moderately and greatly. This indicates lack of appropriate infrastructures such as
inaccessibility to high speed internet, not providing essential on-line services and low awareness
of most people about privilege of using the new methods, and lack of teaching and improving
these infrastructures, most of people become solicitous to use these methods. In relation to
familiarity with internet, about 65% have moderate and great familiarity and 35% have little
familiarity. About 53% use low-speed internet and 47% use high-speed internet and 61% below
five years don't use it at all. These results in current world in which internet plays an important
role in all affairs are very disappointing and weak and also indicate poor infrastructures. By
conducting T-test, it has been revealed that there is no difference in accessibility between men
and women by considering literacy and new methods of trade, but there is some divergences in
relation to others attendance such that others attendance and crowd is more important for men
compared with women. In another analysis by T-test, it is clear that there is no difference in
accessibility between Ma'li abbad and Molasadra in literacy, new methods of trade and others
attendance. All in all, results can be generalized. On the other hand, conducting T-test has
suggested that there is a meaningful correlation between single and married citizens in regard to
accessibility by considering literacy, new methods of trade and others attendance. This indicates
that singles have more knowledge about accessibility than married and also use new methods of 
trade more than marrieds. Crowded places are more attractive for singles compared with
marrieds, on the other part, others attendance is more important for singles. Finally, conducting
Pearson test has shown that there is a correlation in accessibility by considering age and literacy
of people. It is converse in the further and direct in the later one. Aging leads to reduction of
accessibility and its extent while increasing literacy improves accessibility and its extent.
Conclusion
In this study, it has been made clear that personal characteristics including age, gender,
employment status, marital status, education and social factors such as literacy (not education),
access to internet, new methods of trade and others attendance are effective in accessibility and
its extent. Therefore, we should look at accessibility and its extent with a wider view and
according to new ideas in urbanity which was considered according to conventional standards
and scales in urban and land use planning. Hence, considering just the distance from urban area
to determine and localize utilities can no longer effective and useful. These old standards are not
in accordance with existent realities in cities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • accessibility
  • personal characteristics
  • Social Characteristics
  • Ma'liabbad
  • Molasadra