نقش نهاد خیریه‌ای کمیتة امداد در بهبود کیفیت فیزیکی مسکن مددجویان زیر پوشش روستایی (نمونة موردی: بخش کندوان، شهرستان میانه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

مسکن به‌عنوان یکی از پدیده‌های واقعی، از نخستین مسائلی است که بشر همواره با آن دست به گریبان بوده و همواره برای دگرگونی و یافتن پاسخی مناسب، معقول و اندیشیده برای آن تلاش کرده است؛ بنابراین، مسکن یک نیاز است، اما نه هر مسکنی. آنچه ایده‌آل آدمی است، دسترسی به مسکنی با کیفیت مناسب است. حدود نیمی از جمعیت جهان فقیرند و تقریباً 600 تا 800 میلیون نفر در خانه‌های غیر استاندارد زندگی می‌کنند؛ زیرا محل سکونت آن‌ها بدون امنیت و زیرساخت‌های لازم و تسهیلات آب و برق و فاضلاب است و نیز در معرض مخاطره‌های متعدد قرار دارد. در سال‌های پایانی قرن ۲۰، راهکارهای عمده‌ای با هدف رفع این مشکل مطرح شد که یکی از این راهکارها، اقدام سازمان‌ها یا بنیادهای خیریه (NGO) در جهان است که نمونة بارز آن در ایران، کمیتة امداد امام خمینی (ره) است. هدف این پژوهش، واکاوی نقش نهاد خیریه‌ای کمیتة امداد در بهبود وضعیت فیزیکی خانه‌های روستاهای ایران است که با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای و پیمایشی، با روش توصیفی و تحلیلی و با استفاده از نرم‌افزار spss انجام شده است. به‌همین منظور، در این مقاله سعی شده است تا اقدام‌های این نهاد و تأثیر آن در بهبود کیفیت فیزیکی مسکن مددجویان روستایی در بخش کندوان شهرستان میانه، بررسی، تحلیل و ارزیابی شود. به‌همین سبب، متغیرهای وضعیت فیزیکی مسکن مددجویان، با استفاده از آزمون ویلکاکسون در دورة قبل و بعد از حمایت کمیتة امداد، در ۳۷ روستای بخش کندوان، در قالب سه دهستان و ۱۶۰ خانوار بررسی شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که امدادرسانی‌های کمیتة امداد در تمامی متغیرهای وضعیت فیزیکی مسکن، به تغییرهای معنادار در نزد مددجویان زیر پوشش منجر شده است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

THE ROLE OF A CHARITABLE INSTITUTION RELIEF COMMITTEE IN PHYSICAL IMPROVEMENT OF HOUSING QUALITY AND COVERAGE OF RURAL CLIENTS (CASE STUDY: RURALS KANDOVAN DISTRICT OF MIYANEH TOWNSHIP)

نویسندگان [English]

  • abdoreza Rokenedin Eftekhari 1
  • Akbar Mirjalali 2
1 استاد دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران
2 Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction: Housing as one of the real phenomena of the human issues that have always been struggling with it. And always trying to change and to respond, it is reasonable for. House is therefore a necessary but not any housing, what is the ideal man, is access to good quality housing. Furthermore, housing in rural areas, in addition to answering the need for security and privacy of home and family, circle of village-based production system and mutually linked with it. The quality of housing in all housing has traditionally been considered. In this context, housing, as well as their socio-economic status is considered. So we can say that housing is one of the factors affecting the quality of life. Quality of life is a multidimensional and complex concept. Some see it as welfare, social welfare, happiness, satisfaction, and some of these have been interpreted as described Yet sadly, About half of the world’s population is poor and approximately 600 to 800 million people living in non-standard housing. Because Place they lacked the necessary security and infrastructure and facilities, and wastewater utilities and are also exposed to numerous hazards. In order to resolve this gap in the late twentieth century the major solutions to this problem was raised that one of the strategies that organizations or charities (NGO) in the world. In the example of Iran, is Imam Khomeini Relief Committee (RA).This research investigated the role of charitable relief in the physical improvement of rural housing is Iran.
Methodology: This descriptive and analytical research using library resources and methods and areusing
Spss software. Data collected through observation, interview and questionnaire design (field sampling and interviewing patients) conducted validity and reliability using Cronbach's alpha coefficient equal to / is 0.8654, which is acceptable And the questionnaire used in our study used qualitative and ordinal scale is Based on the population of 37 villages in three districts respectively KANDOVAN Mianeh city center, north of warm, tea and includes 160 households covered by the beam. This sample is randomly selected. SPSS software for data analysis and non-parametric Wilcoxon test was used. The Kandovan of 1244 square kilometers, which constitutes 22% of the total area of the city Mianeh.This section north of Sarab city of Ardabil and East to the South and West of the city center is limited And at 47 to 48 degrees east longitude and geographic latitude 37 to 38 degrees to the left of center is located. Aban 1385 census population of 24,820 persons living in villages consisting of 5,875 families. Of these 920 households, including 46 urban and 874 rural households with a total population of 107 urban and 2,049 rural and 2,156 people are covered by the Relief Committee.
Results and discussion: This research was in order to try investigating the actions of the institution and its impact on physical quality improvement of rural housing in the Kandovan District, Mianeh, review, analysis and evaluation. So variable physical condition of housing clients, villages and 160 households in37villages of Tuesday Kandovan form and analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Analysis and hypothesis testing, and physical condition of the housing component of non-parametric Wilcoxon test were used. The results show that all the components and items related to their housing-related activities Relief Committee,
The average number of positive ratings and a significant level of state ntervention to cover the cost of coverage are good. Level significantly lower than the mean level. Wilcoxon test showed that the mean differences were significant. This means that because of the better coverage than before the process is Low but significant levels out, indicating the fact that it is true that the committee on physical improvements in rural housing clients Kandovan effective but not enough to be a concern in this case is forthcoming.
Conclusion: Quality of construction materials used in the manufacture of steel and concrete housing units has increased in recent decades. Residential treatment facilities and services such as electricity, water, gas and telephone are also increased during this period. This change reflects the improvement in the quality and quantity of housing in rural areas during the last decades. Housing was a major consideration in the Development Plan.The application of NGOs and charitable organizations would strengthen the degree of care and attention has been urban and rural housing.The results show that the Relief Committee for all variables in the physical condition of housing leads to significant changes in their clients is covered. Physical improvements to residential clients in the cover before it are up. So that after coverage of the number of units built in 1387 to accommodate the number of patients was 97 which the number of years before the establishment of the committee The Kandovan was not beyond from Number 14. In recent years, about 72 of housing for clients by the committee, the Housing bonyad is underway. Repair and reconstruction of housing units in 31 patients in 1387 and by funds such as loans and mortgages Qrzalhsnh or repairs have been done by the committee. In addition to the above, committee work, and grant a power meter extension and construction of new housing, gas and water
And somewhat older houses patients since 1377, has taken over. The number of branches has increased from 151 in 1377 to 1387. Share in 1387, is 75. Size from 40 m to 60 m range and base units. Usually unaccompanied patients 40 meters and 60 meters for the rest. Report has been obtained from the Statistical Yearbook committee and compare it with the results of statistical data analysis can be concluded that the physical condition of housing significantly different than that of patients covered. And patients were satisfied with the physical quality of housing built in committee, so we can reject the hypothesis H0 in favor of H1 and Committee actions to improve the physical condition of housing is covered by the client. But these measures are not enough.
Keywords: charitable institutions, the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee, physical quality of rural housing, rural development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "charitable institutions؛ " the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee؛ " physical quality
  • "of rural housing؛ " rural development"
1. Ahari, Z., et al, 1982, Minimum Housing, Building and Housing Research Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. (In Persian)
2. Athari, K., 2005, Housing in Poverty: Poverty, Social Policy, Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 5, No. 18, pp. 1-15. (In Persian)
3. Bourne, I.S., 1981, A Geography of Housing, Prentice-Hall.
4. Bukenya, J. Gebrement, T. and Schaeffer, P., 2003, Analysis of Quality Rural Development: Evidence from West Virginia Data, Growth and Change, Vol. 34, PP. 202-218.
5. Dalalpour Hamdi, M., 2000, Housing Planning, Samt, Tehran. (In Persian)
6. Epley, D. and Menon, M., 2008, A Method of Assembling Cross-sectional Indicators into a Community Quality of Life, Soc Indic Res, Vol. 88, PP. 281-296.
7. Gahramani A., 1387, Changes in the Construction Industry of Iran, Journal of Identity, No. 3, autumn and winter. (In Persian)
8. Jafari Samimi, A., et al, 2007, Factors Affecting the Behavior of House Prices in Tehran, Iran, Economic Research Journal, Vol. 9, No. 32, autumn. (In Persian)
9. Khoshfar, G., 1995, Proceedings of the Second Seminar on Application of Social Indicators in Housing Development, Proceedings of the Second Seminar on Development Policies of Housing, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Vol. 2. (In Persian)
10. Lotfi, H., et al, 2009, Indicators Are Essential Components in the Planning and Rural Housing Policy in Iran, Quarterly Geographical Journal, No. 7. (In Persian)
11. Message Housing Foundation, 2011, Housing Foundation of Islamic Revolution Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 66, May. (In Persian)

12. Mokhber, A., 1984, Social Housing, Plan and Budget Organization, Tehran. (In Persian)
13. Naeb, M., 2005, City Mianeh, World Publishing Jam. (In Persian)
14. Nikouseresht, N. and Kharrat Zebardast, S., 1996, Housing, Human Settlements Agenda, Housing Economics Bulletin, No. 18. (In Persian)
15. Pacione, M., 2003, Urban Environmental Quality and Human Wellbeing –A Social Geographical Perspective, Landscape and Urban Planning.
16. Rafiee, F., 2006, NGO Management Principles, Vadiat, Kerman. (In Persian)
17. Rahnamaei, M., 2003, Methods of Construction and Urban Planning, Geography, 3rd edition, Tehran, Center for Architecture and Urban Studies. (In Persian)
18. Report of the Fourth Development Plan, 2005. (In Persian)
19. Rezvani, M. Shakiba, A. and Mansourian, H., 2008, Assessing Quality of Life in Rural Areas, Journal of Social Welfare, Vol. 8, No. 30-31, autumn and winter. (In Persian)
20. Saeedi, M., 2003, Introduction to Public Participation and Non-governmental Organizations, Samt, Tehran. (In Persian)
21. Sartipipour. M., 2005, Indicators of Rural Housing Architecture, Art Journal, No. 23, summer. (In Persian)
22. Shahbaz, E., 1995, Extension and Rural Development, Tehran University publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
23. Sharifzadeh, M., 2011, Housing, the Population of the Poor, Journal of Second Harvest, the Seventh Year of Consecutive Numbers 11 and 12, summer and fall. (In Persian)
24. Shiah, E., 2005, The City and the Region, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran. (In Persian)
25. Statistical Center of Iran, 1996, Statistical Yearbook of Interior, the Building and Housing. (In Persian)
26. Statistical Center of Iran, 2006, Census of Population and Housing. (In Persian)
27. Statistical Yearbook Relief Committee, 2004 – 2008. (In Persian)
28. Zarei, H., 2008, The Housing Market Is Still Bewildering, Economic Report In the Seventeenth, No. 204, January. (In Persian)
29. http: //www.fa .wikipedia.org/w/index.php? (Jan, 2010)