تحلیلی بر چشم‌اندازهای نظری دربارة جهانی‌شدن: نظریة مزیت ویژگی مکانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

جهانی‌شدن، فرایندی تاریخی است که با نخستین مهاجرت­های انسان در آفریقا آغاز شد و به دیگر نقاط جهان گسترش یافت. مهاجران، بازرگانان و دیگران، همواره در طول تاریخ، عقاید و کالاهای خود را به دیگر نقاط جهان منتقل کرده­اند. این امر، ابتدا در مسافت‌های کوتاه و بعد در مسافت­های بلندتر انجام شد. در واقع، جهانی‌شدن فرایندی است که از زمان آفرینش انسان وجود داشته و در دهه‌های اخیر، رشد چشمگیری داشته است. در حوزه‌های مختلف زندگی می‌توان آثاری از آمیختن، اقتباس و انطباق تأثیرهای خارجی را مشاهده کرد. برخی از صاحب‌نظران، سال 1492 را زمان آغاز فرایند جهانی‌شدن اعلام کرده‌اند، اما بیشتر محققان و نظریه‌پردازان، این فرایند را دارای چنین قدمتی نمی‌دانند. به‌هرحال باید گفت جهانی‌شدن فرایندی است که از زمان آفرینش انسان وجود داشته، اما در سال‌‌­های اخیر، رشد چشمگیری داشته است. دربارة جهانی‌شدن، تا امروز مطالب و نظریه‌های متعددی ارائه شده است. این تنوع نظری و گفتمانی در این زمینه، ناشی از ماهیت و اهداف متفاوت آن است، اما مهم‌ترین چالش در مفهوم نظری این واژه، تعارض در بیان دو واژة جهانی‌شدن و جهانی‌سازی است. تعارض و تفاوت نگاه به این دو واژه، ناشی از تفاوت نگاه به فرایندی است که در سه دهة اخیر، ابتدا در بعد سیاسی و امنیتی و سپس از بعد اقتصادی، با تغییر مفهوم مرزها و تغییر کارکرد فضا و مکان، بر تمام رفتار انسان‌ تأثیر گذاشت. در این مقاله تلاش شده است تا به نقش و جایگاه مکان و ویژگی‌های مکانی، متناسب با ارزش‌ها و هنجارهای آن پرداخته و ابعاد و تأثیرهای آن در حوزه‌های مختلف، بررسی شود؛ زیرا پدید آمدن عناوینی همچون «شهروند جهانی» که محصول مستقیم فرایند جهانی‌شدن است، به تغییر یا تردید در پایه‌های ارزشی و هنجاری جوامع و ظهور پدیده‌های جدید در این عرصه منجر شده است. این روند، نقش و اهمیت مکان‌های جغرافیایی را نیز در سطوح مختلف (چه از نظر مفهومی، چه از نظر مبانی و چه در حوزة مصادیق کارکردی) تغییر داده است و جالب اینکه بسیاری از جوامع، در حال ایجاد سازگاری بین خود و این روندها هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Theoretical Perspectives on the Globalization

نویسنده [English]

  • Qiumars Yazdanpanah-dero
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Introduction
Most studies of TNCs from emerging economies do not have on explicit theoretical underpinning. There are even fewer studies which put a particular theory into practice. Several theoretical frame work, however, have been proposed. Globalization basis of the globalization process is the philosophy of capitalism that is the utilitarianism of Bentham ,and other writers.
The idea is that maximization of self – interests is the virtue and the rationalism. Individuals, while selfishly maximizing their own interests, maximize the combined as the invisible hands of the market by Adam smith.

Methodology
Another Adverse effect of separation of production from consumption engendered by the process of globalization is the protection of consumers from the effects of production. The most straight forward example of this phenomenon is the demand from the developing world. The depletion of Local resource bases has often provided a check to economic excesses, but, in today`s world, over – consumption can deplete resources on a global rather than Just a local scale. If a resource is depleted globally, it is lost to human kind forever.
A second example is the international trade in pollution. If richer countries can export pollution to poorer countries, then a natural check on local pollution Levels is Lost and problems of Pollution threaten to become global rather then Just Local in scale.


Results and Discussion
Those constraints can be significant when it coms to services to individual customers: Training services, personal banking and personal telecommunication or retailing are Possible examples. However, there are two major trends that can reduce Language constraints. Also Governments impose regulatory constraints that often work against globalization, either because they limit the free flow of personnel regulation, on working permits, cash exchange control. Tax. goods custom duties. quotas, data censorship. The internet and EDI control or because they impose Localization constraints (Local content policies, Local ownership and joint venture policies.
Conclusion
The world of the 21st century will mark a global transition to an urbanized human race. From fever than third of the world's people Living in cities in 1950,we expect that this Proportion will double by 2050. As we have Learned over the past half century, urbanization offers both risk and promise. With more than five billion people Likely to be Living in these cities within the next 50 years. Failure to address urban infrastructure and assure adequate standards of Living will create human culture media ideal for the selection ,mutation, and transmission of deadly and resistant microbes.
Global systems able to produce and distribute food are essential for healthy people.




Extended Abstract
Introduction
Most studies of TNCs from emerging economies do not have on explicit theoretical underpinning. There are even fewer studies which put a particular theory into practice. Several theoretical frame work, however, have been proposed. Globalization basis of the globalization process is the philosophy of capitalism that is the utilitarianism of Bentham ,and other writers.
The idea is that maximization of self – interests is the virtue and the rationalism. Individuals, while selfishly maximizing their own interests, maximize the combined as the invisible hands of the market by Adam smith.

Methodology
Another Adverse effect of separation of production from consumption engendered by the process of globalization is the protection of consumers from the effects of production. The most straight forward example of this phenomenon is the demand from the developing world. The depletion of Local resource bases has often provided a check to economic excesses, but, in today`s world, over – consumption can deplete resources on a global rather than Just a local scale. If a resource is depleted globally, it is lost to human kind forever.
A second example is the international trade in pollution. If richer countries can export pollution to poorer countries, then a natural check on local pollution Levels is Lost and problems of Pollution threaten to become global rather then Just Local in scale.


Results and Discussion
Those constraints can be significant when it coms to services to individual customers: Training services, personal banking and personal telecommunication or retailing are Possible examples. However, there are two major trends that can reduce Language constraints. Also Governments impose regulatory constraints that often work against globalization, either because they limit the free flow of personnel regulation, on working permits, cash exchange control. Tax. goods custom duties. quotas, data censorship. The internet and EDI control or because they impose Localization constraints (Local content policies, Local ownership and joint venture policies.
Conclusion
The world of the 21st century will mark a global transition to an urbanized human race. From fever than third of the world's people Living in cities in 1950,we expect that this Proportion will double by 2050. As we have Learned over the past half century, urbanization offers both risk and promise. With more than five billion people Likely to be Living in these cities within the next 50 years. Failure to address urban infrastructure and assure adequate standards of Living will create human culture media ideal for the selection ,mutation, and transmission of deadly and resistant microbes.
Global systems able to produce and distribute food are essential for healthy people.



The world of the 21st century will mark a global transition to an urbanized human race. From fever than third of the world's people Living in cities in 1950,we expect that this Proportion will double by 2050. As we have Learned over the past half century, urbanization offers both risk and promise. With more than five billion people Likely to be Living in these cities within the next 50 years. Failure to address urban infrastructure and assure adequate standards of Living will create human culture media ideal for the selection ,mutation, and transmission of deadly and resistant microbes.
Global systems able to produce and distribute food are essential for healthy people.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Globalization
  • Theoretical Globalization
  • local scale
  • Process of Globalization
  • Global rather
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