ارزیابی نحوۀ استقرار فضاهای آموزشی با استفاده از مدل تلفیقی تاپسیس و آنتروپی شانون

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد قزوین، ایران

2 استادیار گروه شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد زنجان، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد شهرسازی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قزوین، ایران

چکیده

فضاهای آموزشی، از مهم­ترین کاربری­های شهری محسوب می­شود و تعیین بهینة مکان استقرار مدارس، از جملة وظایف‌ برنامه­ریزان شهری است. در سال­های اخیر، افزایش ضریب شهرنشینی، زمینة استقرار نامناسب فضاهای آموزشی را فراهم کرده است. برای استقرار مناسب و منطقی این­گونه مکان­ها، به­کارگیری روش­های علمی، امری ضروری است. ارزیابی نحوة استقرار مدارس متوسطة دخترانه در ناحیة 2 شهر زنجان، با استفاده از مدل تلفیقی تاپسیس و آنتروپی شانون و با معیارهای سرانة فضای باز و کلاس درس، دسترسی، قدمت و امنیت ترافیکی انجام می­گیرد. این پژوهش، کاربردی و روش آن توصیفی- تحلیلی است. هدف مقاله، تحلیل و ارزیابی نحوة استقرار فضاهای آموزشی مقطع متوسطة ناحیة 2 شهر زنجان و به دنبال آن، دستیابی به الگویی بهینه به­منظور استقرار مطلوب فضاهای آموزشی، افزایش کارایی و تسهیل در بهره‌برداری آن­ها در سطوح مختلف است. نتایج نشان می­دهد که مکان فعلی اکثر مدارس مورد مطالعه، با استانداردهای لازم برای فضاهای آموزشی مطابقت ندارد. مدارس مستقر در مرکز ناحیه، دارای ظرفیت پایین فضای باز و کلاس درس هستند و بعضی مدارس نیز سازگاری نسبتاً اندکی با کاربری­های همجوار دارند. بیشترین ناسازگاری، مربوط به استقرار مدارس در جوار خیابان­های پرتردد و ایجاد مشکل­های متعدد از جمله آلودگی صوتی، آلودگی هوا و تصادف دانش­آموزان با خودروهای عبوری است. یافته‌های پژوهش، بیانگر غلبة ضعف‌ها بر قابلیت­های این مدارس است. در ماتریس نهایی وزن­دهی ملاحظه شد که شش مدرسه از مجموع دوازده مدرسه، کمترین میزان برخورداری را دارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Establishment of Education Spaces by Mixed Model of TOPSIS and Shannon Entropy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Moeinifar 1
  • Ali Shokouhi 2
  • Zahra Sheikhi 3
1 Assistant professor of urban planning, Department of Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Qazvin, Iran
2 Assistant professor of urban planning, Department of Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan, Iran
3 MA in urban planning, Department of Urban Planning, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Educational spaces are considered as the most important urban areas. Determining the optimal establishment of schools in urban areas is one of the duties of urban planners. In the recent years, increasing urbanization caused poor arrangement of educational spaces, so that urban population has difficulties in accessing to the education. In spite of the important role of educational spaces in the quality of education and their great effects on applying educational programs, little attention was paid to location and organization of educational spaces in Iran, like the most of the developing countries. In fact, population areas are spatially resulted from natural, social, economic and physical relations, which are organized in the natural environment, and social and economic activities with interactions between human beings and the environment. If the service centers, especially educational centers, are located properly, this correlation will be higher. To establish appropriate and reasonable educational facilities, efficient use of scientific and sufficient methods would be necessary. The reason for this is that use of precise quantitative tools makes it possible to evaluate more precisely the establishment of schools being studied in this research.
 
Methodology
The examination about how female schools are established in the second educational region of Zanjan was conducted by a combined model taking into account outdoor spaces and classrooms per capita, accessibility, building date and traffic safety. Therefore, this is an applied research with descriptive-analytical method. Statistical population is whole population and the students in the scope of the second educational region of Zanjan city, separated by the areas and blocks. In the present research, the sample is the very same statistical population. The research method is descriptive – analytical and necessary data for the research were gathered through detailed library studies, documents, observation, questionnaire, and field works. The status of physical, economic, social and administrative domains was also studied. The objective of the present paper is to analyze educational locations in secondary schools of the second educational region in Zanjan city and to evaluate the current situation of educational spaces. Furthermore, it is tried to develop an optimal model in order to establish educational spaces properly and to increase efficiency and convenience of their utilization in the spatial levels.
 
Results and discussion
The results of the study revealed that current location of most of the studied schools do not meet standards for educational facilities. Various factors should be considered in proper establishment of the schools. Some of the schools are fixed and others are variable, that is, some of them may change over time and others remain unchanged. Most of the schools established in the center of city have higher age and many of them were constructed with materials of low resistance. These schools are among the places with lower range of outdoor and classroom per capita relative to common standards. Moreover, they often are located in crowded and dangerous places for the students. The most incompatibility is related to the schools located on the crowded streets resulting in several problems such as noise and air pollution and crashes occurring to the students by passing vehicles. According to the distribution of educational spaces in female secondary schools, it was noticed that most schools are not distributed according to the requirements of student population and cannot meet the real needs of the studied school. There is no female secondary school in the east and north-east part of the second educational region of Zanjan.
The results of weighting of final matrix showed that the whole rate of minimum accessibility (0.1635) in relation to the highest rate (0.7942) is in very high level. This shows the superiority and dominance of the potential weaknesses compared with the capabilities. This indicated that the existing capacities were not used properly to overcome the weaknesses. The greatest difficulties in educational areas are related not only to the buildings and non-standard areas but also to their location and inconvenience in the student access to the educational spaces.
 
Conclusion
These findings suggest the superiority and dominance of the weaknesses in comparison with the capacities of the studied schools. Moreover, the final weighting matrix showed that six schools out of the 12 ones received the lowest rates of accessibilities. Due to the factors affecting the construction of the educational buildings, it is proposed that we should not consider simply one factor in construction of educational space. For example, the number of students or depreciation of the space or the year of its construction, all should be considered and all aspects should be evaluated systematically to build a school. Some existing educational spaces have some problems such as their inappropriate location in incompatible land use, particularly those with high traffic routes; lack of the possibility to change the use of adjacent spaces; and impossibility to move educational units from the existing educational facilities to other convenient location. Therefore, the simplest, most cost-effective and practical solutions to solve the mentioned problems are use of double-glazed windows; planting dense trees to reduce noise pollution; construction of appropriate area, building proper entrances and good views, and so on. If there are necessary facilities and budget, then the reasonable method will be used to change incompatible land use in educational neighborhood areas or to transfer the educational units to a proper place. It is difficult to alter the adjacent inappropriate educational environments. Dealing with land uses on the rivers and crowded streets  would be appropriate to adopt such measures as change in the location and the entrance and exit direction of doors in educational areas. These measures can avoid direct contact of students with the main streets, roads, intersections and squares.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • school ranking
  • secondary school
  • Shannon entropy model
  • TOPSIS Model
  • Zanjan City
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