بررسی عوامل موثربرکیفیت زندگی ساکنان مناطق غیررسمی (مطالعه موردی: محلۀ حصار همدان)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشکدة علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

حاشیه­نشینی همواره به­صورت یک معضل مطرح شده و برای رهایی از آن راهکارهای بسیاری تدارک دیده شده است. همدان هم مانند بسیاری از شهر­ها، درحال طی مسیر شهرنشینی است. یکی از محله­ها با اسکان غیر رسمی شهر همدان، محله یا منطقة حصار است. در این پژوهش، به بررسی کیفیت زندگی ساکنان این محله با رویکرد ذهنی پرداخته شده است تا نگاه ساکنان با رویکرد پایین به بالا بررسی شود. این پژوهش از نظر هدف، کاربردی- توسعه­ای و از نظر شیوة انجام، توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده است و براساس مطالعة کتابخانه­ای و تکمیل پرسشنامه انجام شده است. در این پژوهش، تعیین حجم نمونه براساس فرمول کوکران به­دست آمد. در بخشمطالعه­­های میدانی، داده­‌ها به شیوه­‌های مختلف مشاهده شدند. پس از مراجعه به محل، پرسشنامه در طیف لیکرت پنج­مقیاسی طراحی شد. در این راستا و در جهت اهداف تحقیق، از طریق تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانه و تکنیک تحلیل مسیر، نوع و شدت روابط و تأثیرهای مستقیم و غیر مستقیم هریک از متغیر‌های مستقل بر متغیر وابستة نهایی و میانی تحلیل شد. براساس اطلاعات به­دست­آمده، بیشترین تأثیر کل، مربوط به متغیر‌های اقتصادی است. درنهایت، فرضیة اول پژوهش، مبنی بر غیر مستقیم­بودن اثر بعضی از مؤلفه­ها بر کیفیت زندگی محلة حصار و فرضیة دوم، مبنی بر اهمیت متغیر‌های اقتصادی به­عنوان مؤثرترین مؤلفة تأثیرگذار بر کیفیت زندگی تأیید شد و امکانات تفریحی و ورزشی، به­عنوان مهم­ترین نیاز ساکنان تشخیص داده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of the Factors Affecting Quality of Life in Informal Settlements, (Case Study: Hesar, Hamedan)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Keramatollah Ziari 1
  • Hossein Rafiee Mehr 2
1 Professor of geography and urban planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 PhD candidate in geography and urban planning, Faculty of Earth Science, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Today, almost all the cities as “first world” have a Third World city in their hearts that has been struggled with various problems. Due to this reason, many scientists and authorities have focused on the concept of quality of life and fallowed by promoting efforts for improvement of living conditions and quality of human life.Hamedan City same as most of the cities is in the path of urbanization. Especially majority of the population in the province reside in the center of province. As a result, the phenomenon of marginalization is expanding. Hence, vision and imagination of the residents to their life quality is an effective way to identify issues and planning to solve the problems of these areas. This is because it prevents the same prescription for different settlements and bottom-up planning to occur. Hesar Emam neighborhood of Hamedan as the study area is one of the most problematic area in the region.
 
Methodology
This is practical and development research with a descriptive analytical method. The data of this study is collected based on the literature study and a questionnaire. Questionnaire was designed in 5 likert scale. The study sample size was determined based on a Cochran formula. A subjective approach was taken in this study to assess quality of life. The study is based on 11 indicators derived of research experiences and studied in the 59 indices.
 
Results and discussion
In this section, we presented descriptive results obtained from the questionnaire by using descriptive statistics. Then, by using inferential statistics, we analyzed and tested the research hypotheses and relationships between variables. Understanding the mean and the mean value calculated for the population under study and also the value obtained for the perceived quality of life in our community, a significant amount has been calculated. Alpha is 0.05 times the area of 0.000 and indicates that there is a lower quality of life. To identify the most important predictors of quality of life in informal settlements, Hesar has been analysed through multiple regression analysis. The results of multiple regression analysis show that entertainment is the most pressing needs of the community from the resident viewpoint.
 
Conclusions
In urban and human geography, the most important role has been given to the social justice and social welfare and human geography gained its place as a scientific field only in purpose of improving human life environment and providing social welfare to him. The purpose of improving life quality in urban area is to provide equal services and facilities. Life Quality opens a way for local officials and the people to interact with each other for a better understanding of the key issues affecting people’s life. In today cities, economy is the important factor which makes distinction between the areas of a town. The results of multiple regression analysis and path analysis show that entertainment is the most pressing needs of the community from resident viewpoint. Further priorities are the security and safety condition, health condition, health care protection, housing, employment, economic conditions, educational status and transportation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hesar District
  • Informal Settlement
  • quality of life
  • Subjective Approach
  • urban quality of life indicators
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