گونه‎شناسی بافت های روستاشهری؛ گام نخست در چشم‌اندازسازی روستاشهرها (مطالعۀ موردی گونه‎شناسی: بافت‌های روستاشهری یزد)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی دانشگاه یزد، دانشکدۀ هنر و معماری، گروه شهرسازی، یزد، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

همزمان با رشد برون‎زای بافت‌های شهری به سوی روستاها و مراکز زیستی پیرامونی، علاوه‎بر بافت‎های مرکزی شهرها، روستاهای الحاقی نیز در جریان توسعه با جایگزینی جمعیت، نیل به حاشیه­نشینی دارند و بافت‌های جدید مسئله­دار شهری با ماهیت روستایی پدید می‎آیند. روستاها در جریان این الحاق مهلت سازگاری و تطابق و در یک کلمه، شهری­شدن ندارند و این آغازگر مسئله در دو بستر متفاوت، یعنی شهر و روستاهایِ الحاقی به شهر است. به‎واسطۀ گستردگی این نوع الحاق­ها، پژوهش در زمینۀ چرایی و چگونگی پیدایش بافت­های روستاشهری و بیان پیشینه و رویکردهای گوناگون نسبت به این‎گونه بافت‎ها دارای ضرورت موضوعی، موضعی و زمانی است. برای امکان ارائۀ رهیافت‎هایی برای چشم‍اندازسازیِ بافت­های روستاشهری، گونه­بندی بافت­های روستایی الحاقی گام نخست است. این نوشتار با هدف تعریفِ مبنایی برای گونه­شناسی بافت‌های روستاشهری، با استفاده از روش پژوهش اکتشافی ـ توسعه‎ای؛ اصول راپاپورت برای قاعده‎مندسازی گونه‎شناسی، ازجمله به‎کارگیری شاخص‎های متعدد (گونه‎شناسی چندشاخصه‎ای)، پرهیز از تشخیص گونۀ ایده­آل و خالص و انتخاب معقولانۀ شاخص­ها و تعمیم نظریۀ شکلِ شهریِ لینچ را مبنا قرار داده و رفتار روستا و شهر را در جریان الحاق 15 نمونه روستای الحاقی به شهر یزد پی جسته است. پس از دسته‎بندی محورهای منتج از بررسی ماهوی این بافت‌ها، با استفاده از روش پژوهش تطبیقی در سه گونۀ کالبدی (ترکیبی، خطی و فشردۀ طبیعت محور، ترکیبی، خطی و فشردۀ انسان‎ساخت)، موقعیت‌شناسی (اقماری فرودست و فرادست، پیوستۀ فرودست و فرادست، درونی فرودست و فرادست) و هویت انسانی (اقتصادمحور، مذهب‎محور و قومیت محور) طبقه‌بندی شدند و مبنایِ گونه‎بندی، 15 بافت‌ روستایی الحاقی به شهرِ یزد قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Typology of Rural-Urban Textures, the First Step in the Vision of Rural Urban Studies (Case Study of Typology: Rural-Urban Textures ‎of Yazd)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Akbari 1
  • Massoud Ghaderian 2
1 Instructor of Urban Design, Art and Architecture Department, University of Yazd, Yazd, Iran
2 MA Student in Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

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کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rural-urban form
  • rural-urban textures
  • Texture
  • Typology
  • vision-making
Introduction
What will be explored in this article are urban spots in the problematic outer texture which is affected by annexation villages to city during the exogenous development of city. In fact, these areas will be the contexts with lack or shortage of utilities and infrastructure, widespread land speculation, widespread usage of informal / illegal natural resources, substantive change of land-use and the problem of institutional failure. The circumstances of these areas are the lack of an integrated organizational structure in the urban texture, confluence of partial institutions of overlapped functions, inconsistencies within and between organizational structures of rural urban textures.
Villages can be put in category of urban settlements in three ways: 1. aggregation of several villages and forming of an urban area, 2- conversion of a big village into a small city, 3- joining village to city and its conversion to an urban area. In this article, the order of “rural – urban texture” as a word is the third mode of conversion of a village into a city. Given the many and various issues facing the urban textures, several types of urban problematic textures will be recognizable. The integrated villages in the cities can be classified in limited categories besides having unique characteristics.
Related researches to urban form addressed typology of all urban forms with diversity purposes. Typology is effective, for three reasons; first, as a tool for describing urban structure; second, as a tool for planning to understand urban types which paves the way in micro and macro level for more appropriate planning and design. This article is following the third approach.
In fact, urban form emphasize on the spatial distribution of drivers of land-uses related to physical basis and transportation network. From Lynch’s view, urban form is spatial and formal emergence of civic-social life of city and activity of urban communities in place and time has found a multi-dimensional nature in the combination of subjectivity and objectivity. Urban form is resulted from the interaction of many forces which can be classified in three categories: natural, artificial and human factors. Understanding of urban morphology means to study settlements forms and provide critical insight comprehend urban growth models. The science of morphology considers three approaches in relation to the city’s phenomenon:

environment and behavior: focus on man-made environment in relation to human usage, behavior and perception.
place and its image: focus on dimensions of man-made environment in relation to human experiments, meanings and values.
structure and trend: focus on evolving man-made environment through analysis of classified element based on their types proposed in “urban morphology”.

Third approach is addressing systematic description and man-made environment analysis by focusing on studying the man-made environment without human dual behavior. This article, with aim of typology in the rural-urbans with the element of their forms attempt to recognize their structure through following the “structure and trend” approach.
 
Methodology
In the literature review section, in addition to collecting data with documentary method, the approaches with the ability to apply for typology of adjoint rural textures is selected and presented in the condition of Iran. In order to address the typology of these textures, comparative method is used based on some features of adjoint rural textures in Yazd City and finally, by the expert analysis method the results can be generalized.
 
Results and Discussion
This aim of this article is to define basis for typology of rural-urban textures.  Following the principles of Rappaport (in order to formulate typology) such as applying multiple indices (multi- indexes typology), avoiding pure and ideal type diagnosis, and selection of logical indices, this research  attempts to generalize the image city theory of Lynch and follow the behavior of village and city during adjunction of 15 sample villages into city of Yazd.
According to the results from substantive study of these textures and general categorization of rural-urban textures, they can be classified into three types: 1- physical (combinatorial, linear and nature-oriented compress, combinatorial, linear and man-made compress), 2- location (lower and upper satellite, lower and upper contiguous, lower and upper midland), and 3- human identity (economic- oriented, religious- oriented and ethnicity- oriented). These will be the basis for typology of 15 adjoint rural textures to city of Yazd.
Conclusion
This research shows that we are able to classify rural-urban textures in efficient types with the aim of identification of related problems and production of essential forecasts for revitalization to determine implicitly rural-urban future identity. Identification which is not only requires for nowadays life of the rural-urban texture, but also will be prerequisite to future vision- making of each identified types.