عنوان مقاله [English]
Understanding of political geography requires perception interaction of geography (space) and politics (power) or geographic themes interaction such as space, place and territory with matters of politics, power and policy. Since the term of political geography by Robert Jacques Turgot (1781-1727), French philosopher, there have been various definitions and interpretations about this science. These definitions and interpretations are mainly influenced by the dominant paradigm (determinism, chorological, etc) and specializing commentators. The interpretations of the affected schools are adequate to ''political geography as the study of the interaction of space and politics". Scheme of political geography has been reflected in the major works of political geographers. However, there is no general agreement on the scope of political geography and the consequence of this diversity of definitions and interpretations has led to confusion for students. Questions and answers on the Iranian academic community show these statements and it has no intelligibility need at least for graduate students. Hence, the definition of scientific and applied is inevitable for research areas and academic necessity.
This present article has the fundamental nature with interpretive - analytical methodology. It attempts to use library resources within the understanding of geography and political science. The main method of this study was a descriptive-analytical approach. It has been carried out by a literature review in library data. This research has a fundamental nature within the framework of fundamental concept of territory to delimit the scope of concept and case of political geography science.
Results and discussion
Politics means regulated domestic and conduct of foreign affairs. Accordingly, political geography attempts to study the political system of territory (Political Organization of Space) in domestic and abroad (Interaction space). In other words, the issues of territory, natural features and capabilities and its material and natural actions and reactions show spatial phenomena from the politics. Political geography is born when spatial phenomena interact with the politics. In this case, understanding of nature and human in the one hand, and human and the politics has important function in the definition of political geography. Certainly, understanding of political geography requires understanding the interaction of geography (space) and politics (power) or interaction of geographic elements such as space, place and territory with matters of politics, power and policy. Territoriality is geographic human characteristics which represents individual and group efforts to protect their identity, property and the environment where they live and they belong to. The human territoriality action orientation appears in forms of influence, operation, interactions, limiting access, claims ownership, sovereignty management, monitoring and themes of a geographical domain (place, space, environment, town, village, country, and region). It contains the affairs and fields of human biology (including politics, economy and culture). Part of this action have innate natural property that territoriality and part of it is outcomes of the human excesses and domination. Hence, the concept of geographical territory and boundaries reflects geographic scope of sovereignty, jurisdiction and ownership of political units and social actors.
From the perspective of political geography territoriality behavior is geographical - political strategy to achieve specific goals like monitoring of geographical space to maintain or gain power or resistance. Territories are not natural features but they are outcomes of the various activities and social processes in which space and community are linked together. Therefore, territory has a concept beyond the space and reflects the human's authority, power and control. The territory and the territoriality are foundations of political geography issues. Accordingly, political geography as a subset of human geography is the science that investigates political aspects of geographical space in the form of power relations (in coexistence aspects, challenge, conflict and war) whit human territory and territoriality. Accordingly, territory has content more than just a space and is a reflection of the authority, power and control of the government. Territory element is the influence of power, domination and ownership that supply mainly material resources and sometimes no material of power. Hence, territory is manifestation of power relations and interactions between spatial units that they claim its ownership, governance and management.