تحلیل نظام بنادر شمال کشور در راستای توسعۀ منطقه ای

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی شهری، گروه جغرافیای شهری، دانشکدة علوم جغرافیایی و برنامه‌ریزی، دانشگاه اصفهان

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

بنادر از عوامل تسریع‌کنندة فرایند توسعة اقتصاد ملی/ منطقه‌ای و محلی هستند و نقش‌ تعیین‌کننده‌ای در سازمان‌دهی به فضای ملی دارند. درواقع، هر منطقة جغرافیایی مزیت­های متفاوت جغرافیایی و محیطی برای توسعه دارد و همین امر سبب نابرابری در پیشرفت کشورها شده است. امکان دسترسی به آب­های آزاد و ارتباط با بندرگاه­های بزرگ، همواره از عوامل مهم و اثرگذار در احیا و رشد تجاری کشورها بوده است. همچنین شرایط اقتصادی بنادر به­گونه­ای است که اغلب آن­ها به دنبال دستیابی به جایگاهی رقابتی در سطح بین­الملل هستند، اما در این میان باید به نقش بنادر در توسعة داخلی و توسعة منطقه­ای نیز توجه کرد. هدف از این پژوهش، ارزیابی و شناخت بنادر دریای خزر برای توسعة این منطقه است. پس از بررسی­های کلی و مقایسة معیارهای مورد بررسی، از میان بنادر شمال کشور که در محدودة دریای خزر واقع شده­اند، سه بندر انزلی در استان گیلان و نوشهر و امیرآباد در استان مازندران، با توجه به ویژگی­ها، برای انجام این پژوهش انتخاب شدند. این پژوهش، توصیفی- تحلیلی است و با استفاده از منابع اسنادی و همچنین بهره­گیری از مدل AHP انجام شده است. نتایج حاصل از یافته­های تحقیق نشان می­دهد که بندر انزلی در میان سه بندر مورد مقایسه، به­لحاظ معیارهای مورد بررسی، در مرتبة اول اهمیت قرار دارد. به­همین­سبب، به­عنوان مناسب­ترین بندر برای توسعة منطقة شمال کشور انتخاب شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Northern Ports of Iran in Regional Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jamal Mohammadi 1
  • Akram Tafakori 2
1 Assistant professor of geography and urban planning, Faculty of Geography Sciences and Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 PhD candidate in geography and urban planning, Faculty of Geography Sciences and Planning, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Interdiction
Nowadays, a great mass of goods and effective services in economy of countries and coastal areas is transported through the sea which has spawned considerable interest due to its necessity and positive properties. As the seaport plays a very important role in development of geographical areas, its potentials and advantages should be evaluated. As the process of development is not the same in different countries with different levels within development process in the provinces and regions. Development of provinces and regions of the country due to the heterogeneous spatial distribution of resources may be out of process. In other words, due to regional capacities and comparative advantages, the development of these areas is different or even inappropriate. Development and evaluation of the potential development areas is one of the subjects of geography, therefore, the theoretical foundations of the science can be seen in this area. It is necessary to assess the potential and advantages of port cities. Given the key role in the development of regional ports, planners need to identify the opportunities and benefits of these cities to play their role in the development of geographic areas. The regional studies are attempting to find capabilities and capacity for growth and development in each region. In the present research, the facilities of each seaport of northern areas are specified and evaluated from the standpoints of economy, efficiency and equipment. In fact, the purpose of this study is to identify the capabilities and their proportional advantages for development of this region.
Methodology
This research has a descriptive – analytical methodology. To collect data, it is necessary to consider documents based on the libraries and filed studies. Geographical considerations about the northern seaports of the country have been performed using the AHP model. In this research, since the purpose is the identification of relative advantages for regional development, 3 seaports of Novshahr, Anzali and Amirabad (Behshahr) were selected based on their efficiency in northern region of the country. Based on the multivariate analysis model of AHP, one of the ports was specified as the most appropriate with the most potential of development in the region.
Results and discussion
The northern seaports were evaluated in two steps in such a way that in first step, the seaports of Mazandaran province were compared and the better ports were identified based on the considered criteria. In next step, the best selected port of Mazandaran province was compared with Anzali seaport as the best port of Guilan province. The methods and principles of the comparison are presented in each step.
At this point, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to make a comparison in the importance of the options in the ports. The AHP is based on the judgment; the result is a relative judgment that can vary from person to person. In addition, it requires cumbersome mathematics, so it is easy to understand and can effectively control both quantitative and qualitative data.
The first step in the analytic hierarchy process is creation of a hierarchical structure in which the objectives, criteria, options and the relationship between them is shown. Four important next steps in the analytic hierarchy process are coefficient criteria and the criteria to calculate the coefficient of options, calculation of the final score of logical consistency check options and judgments.
In the first three criteria: location, facilities (with substandard equipment total number of drought, total number of marine equipment, garden area, covered storage area) and function (with the following criteria, the movement of thousands of vessels, number of incoming ships, the total export of non-oil, non-oil imports) are considered to evaluate options (Noshahr ports, Anzali, Amirabad). Then, to determine the importance of the criteria, the sub-indices are discussed. These criteria and sub-criteria are compared in a qualitative method. This comparison is based on pairwise comparison matrix technique or two by two. A logical way has been conducted to determine the value or weight of the objective criteria and sub criteria.
After formation of the matrix, consistency index of Sati is performed using accepted criteria to test the judgments. In this way, the first row of the matrix as a geometric mean is calculated and then normalized. The coefficient measures the importance of normalizing these numbers, namely the division of the total number are achieved.
To get the important factor, it was carried out in the next step. First, the criteria for pairwise comparison and after the formation of matrix (A, B, C), the following important factors have been calculated for each criterion sub-criteria (location, equipment, performance).
Scoring options are evaluated based on the criteria presented in sub-criteria (10) states. The final score is calculated and the results are evaluated as follows:

Noshahr with a final score 0.5471
Amirabad with a final score 0.1777
Anzali with a final score 0.5871

Therefore, as you can see in the Anzali port, the first three of the criteria are compared. Noshahr is also compared with Amirabad (also province) as rated higher in terms of the criteria.
 
Conclusion
This research examines the identification of relative advantages of northern seaports to specify the most appropriate port from the standpoint of regional development. In a comprehensive investigation of the northern seaports in 3 provinces of Mazandaran, Guilan and Golestan, their efficiencies were considered. The three seaports of Bandar Anzali, Novshahr and Amirabad (Behshahr) were selected among all seaports according to their geographical location and their facilities are compared with other seaports of northern region.
Evaluation of the three sample seaports using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) indicated that Anzali was chosen as the most appropriate one in development of the northern region of Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • AHP
  • Development
  • northern seaports
  • Regional Development
  • relative advantages

محتشمی، علی و محمدعلی خاتمی فیروزآبادی، 1390، ارائة یک متدولوژی جهت تخصیص تجهیزات و تسهیلات به بنادر با استفاده از ابزارهای تصمیم­گیری چندمعیاره و شبیه­سازی (مطالعة موردی: بندر شهید رجایی)، مجلة بین­المللی مهندسی و مدیریت صنعتی، سال بیست­ودوم، شمارة 2.

رهنمایی، محمدتقی، 1389، توان­های محیطی ایران، چاپ دوم، مرکز نشر دانایی توانایی، تهران.

پورطاهری، مهدی، 1389، کاربرد روش‌های تصمیم‌گیری چندشاخصه در جغرافیا، چاپ اول، سمت، تهران.

توفیق، فیروز، 1372، ارزشیابی چندمعیاری در طرح­ریزی کالبدی، مجلة آبادی، شمارة 11، صص 40- 43.

اژدری عبدالمالکی، محمد، 1382، انتخاب سیستم­های حمل­ونقل عمومی با استفاده از مدل­سازی AHP، اخبار ترافیک، بهار و تابستان.

چراغی، علیرضا، 1387، ایجاد و افزایش مزیت رقابتی در بنادر، مجلة بندر و دریا، شمارة 187.

رضازاده شفارودی، معصومه، 1386، بندر انزلی، چاپ اول، دفتر پژوهش­های فرهنگی، تهران.

شرکت شهاب اندیشه، 1388، مطالعات توسعة منطقه­ای قم، چاپ اول، قم.

زالی، نادر، 1379، سطح­بندی توسعة منطقه­ای (مطالعة موردی: استان آذربایجان شرقی)، پایان­نامة کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز.

زبردست، اسفندیار، 1380، کاربرد AHP در برنامه­ریزی شهری و منطقه­ای، مجلة هنرهای زیبا، شمارة 10، صص 13- 21.

قدسی­پور، سیدحسن، 1380، فرایند تحلیل سلسله­مراتبی AHP، انتشارات دانشگاه امیرکبیر، تهران.

سازمان بنادر و دریانوردی، 1388، گزارش عملیات بارگیری و تخلیه در بنادر، دفتر آمار و انفورماتیک، مدیریت و گزارش سالانه.

سازمان بنادر و دریانوردی، 1388، راهنمای جامع حمل­ونقل دریایی، دفتر آمار و انفورماتیک، مدیریت و گزارش سالانه.

کاظمی آسیابر، علیرضا، 1390، مفاهیمپایداری محیط زیست، مجلة بندر و دریا، شمارة 180.

یاسوری، مجید، 1388، بررسی وضعیت نابرابری منطقه­ای در استان خراسان رضوی، دوفصلنامة جغرافیا و توسعة ناحیه­ای، شمارة 12.

مولایی، محمد، 1387، بررسی و مقایسة درجة توسعه­یافتگی بخش کشاورزی استان­های ایران طی سال­های 1373 و 1383، فصلنامة اقتصاد کشاورزی و توسعه، سال شانزدهم، شمارة 63.

کلانتری، هاشم، 1390، راهکارهای افزایش سهم حمل­ونقل ریلی در جذب بار از بنادر، مجلة بندر و دریا، شمارة 181.

  1. Abdulmaleki, Ajdari,M , 2003, The Choice of Public Transportation Systems Using Modeling AHP, traffic News, spring and summer. (In Persian)
  2. Portaheri, M., 2011, Application of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods in Geography, 1st Ed, Samt, Tehran. (In Persian)
  3. Towfigh, F., 1994, Multi-Criteria Evaluation in Physical Planning, Land Magazine, No. 11, pp. 40-43. (In Persian)
  4. Cheraghi, A. R., 2009, Establish and Rising Competitive Advantage in Port, Port Sea Magazine, Issue 178. (In Persian)
  5. Rezazadeh Shafaroodi, M., 2008, Bandar Anzali, Cultural Researches, Tehran. (In Persian)
  6. Rahnemaei, M. T, 2010, Environmental Powers, 2nd Ed, Danaei Tavanaei,Tehran. (In Persian)
  7. Zali, N., 2001, Graded Regional Development (The Case of East Azerbaijan Province), M.S Thesis, University of Shiraz, Shiraz. (In Persian)
  8. Zebardast, E., 2002, Application of AHP in Urban and Regional Planning, Fine Art Magazine, No. 10, pp. 13-21. (In Persian)
  9. Ports and Maritime Organization, 2010, Comprehensive Handbook of Marine Transportation, Office of Statistics and Informatics, Management, Annual Report. (In Persian)
  10. Ports and Maritime Organization, 2010, Reporting Operations Loading And Unloading Ports, Department of Statistics and Informatics, Management, Annual Report. (In Persian)
  11. Shahab Andishe Co., 2010, Regional Development Studies in Qom, 1st Ed, Qom. (In Persian)
 

  1. Ghodsipour, H., 2002, Analytical Hierarchy Process AHP, Amirkabir University Press, Tehran. (In Persian)
  2. Assiabar Kazemi, A. R., 2012, Implications of Environmental Sustainability, Sea Port Magazine, Issue 180. (In Persian)
  3. Kalantari, H., 2012, Increasing the Share of Rail Transport Strategies to Attract Load Port, Port Sea Magazine, Issue 181. (In Persian)
  4. Mohtasham, A. and Khatami Firoozabadi, M. A., 2011, Provide a Methodology Trying Allocation of Equipment, Facilities Ports Using Tool Multi-Criteria Decision-Making and Simulation Study (Murray: Port martyr Rajaii), International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, V. 22, No. 2. (In Persian)
  5. Mowla'ii, M., 2008, Comparison of the Degree of Development of the Agricultural Sector of Iran During 1373 and 1383, Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, Vol. 16, No. 63. (In Persian)
  6. Yassouri, M., 2009, Evaluation of Regional Inequality in Khorassan Razavi, Journal of Geography and Regional Development, No. 12, (In Persian)
  7. Adlin, A. and Taylor, Michael A. P., 2005, A consistent Method to Determine Flexible Criteria Weights for Multicriteria Transport Project Evaluation in Developing Countries, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 3948-3963.
  8. Cengiz, K., Ufuk, C. and Ziya, U., 2003, Multi-criteria supplier selection using fuzzy AHP, Logistics Information Management, Vol. 16, No. 6.
  9. Milosevic, D. Z., 2003, Project Management Toolbox. Tools and Techniques for the Practicing Project Manager. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Publishing, New York.
  10. Whitaker, R., 2001, Validation Examples of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Analytic Network Process, Creative Decisions Foundation, Pittsburgh, USA.
  11. http://www.gilan.ir
  12. http://www.noshahrport.pmo.ir