بسترهای ژئوپلیتیکی قاچاق کالا و ارز با تأکید بر بازارچه‎های مرزی (مطالعۀ موردی: استان کرمانشاه)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکدۀ جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

3 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، کرمانشاه، ایران

4 دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران

چکیده

اقدامات تجاری پویا و بازارچه‎های مرزی، می‎توانند نقش اساسی و بسیار مؤثری در ترقی و پیشرفت و همچنین، توسعۀ پایدارِ اقتصاد نواحی مرزی و بهبود استانداردهای زندگی مردم، کاهش فقر، توزیع مناسب درآمدها، ایجاد روابط دوستی و جلوگیری از مهاجرت و به‎خصوص کاهش و حتی جلوگیری از جریان قاچاق کالا و ارز ایفا کنند. در بازارچه‎های مرزی کرمانشاه مبادلاتی زیادی انجام می‎گیرد. جریان قاچاق کالا و ارز در کنار سایر گونه‎های قاچاق، ازجمله فعالیت‎های مافیایی است که مخاطرات انسانی و مشکلات بی‎شماری را در مقیاس‎های گوناگون برای مکان و جوامع به‎ارمغان آورده است. این نوشتار درصدد است نقش بازارچه‎های مرزی کرمانشاه را درثبات اقتصادی و امنیتی مرتبط با جریان قاچاق در این استان، به‎ویژه در مناطق مرزی بررسی کند. سؤال اصلی پژوهش این‎گونه مطرح شده است که آیا ایجاد بازارچه‎ها، ثبات اقتصادی و امنیتیِ مناطق مرزی را به‎همراه دارد و زمینۀ کاهش قاچاق را فراهم می‎آورد؟ برای پاسخ به این پرسش، از روش پژوهش تحلیلی ـ توصیفی بهره‎جویی شده است. جمع‎آوری اطلاعات و داده‎ها نیز میدانی (پرسشنامه) و کتابخانه‎ای است، استفاده از نمودار و تحلیل داده‎ها، زمینۀ شکل‎گیری پاسخ نهایی و نتیجه‎گیری را فراهم آورده است. نتایج پژوهش بیان می‎کند که مجموعه عوامل ژئوپلیتیکی نامناسبی در مناطق مرزی وجود دارد که همانند بازارچه‎های مرزی، زمینۀ قاچاق کالا و ارز را فراهم کرده است. امنیت و ثبات اقتصادی نیز در این مناطق وجود ندارد و اغلب، سرمایه‎گذاری برای حل مشکل بیکاری درکانون توجه نیست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geopolitical Foundations for Contraband of Goods and Currency Emphasizing on Border–Marketplaces, Case Study: Kermanshah Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra PishgahiFard 1
  • Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf 2
  • Mohammad Raoof Heydari Far 3
  • Shahriyar Heydari 4
1 Associate Prof. of Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Prof of Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Prof. of Geography, Payame-e-Noor University, Kermanshah, Iran
4 PhD Candidate in Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Economic and trade exchange is one of the significant factors to establish friendly relationship among neighboring countries and also to provide means for livelihood of the local people in borderland. By this way, the people by supporting each other can contribute to stability and progress of economic and security using the available opportunities and sources. The dynamic trade actions and bazzarche (market) in border can effectively play a main role in progress and sustainable development and the economics of borderland. This can also help promote the quality of life, reduce poverty, support suitable distribution of incomes, establish friendship relations, and prevent emigration. There is a bulky exchange in the borderland Bazaarche in Kermanshah. This study is trying to examine the role and position of borderland Bazaarche in the economic stability and security in the province, particularly in the border areas.  The main hypothesis of this study is that with establishing such Bazaarche, economic stability and security has been ensured to some extent.
Considering the distribution of settlements and that of soil and water resources in border areas, and also the low population in rural areas, alongside the nature of relations among the people of the area and those in borders, the sagacious development of such areas and promotion of the life quality in frontier zones finds special economic, cultural and security importance. The instability in border population, in one hand, and the absence of space and regional balances between border villages in capital, on the other hand, they have profoundly affected development of such zones. Hence, the existing population masses of the border margins have been pushed in a socio-economic isolation. Nowadays, injustices like these beside the unofficial business network or contraband have made governments to cooperate with each other to clean their borders using modern methods.
 
Methodology
Applying an analytic-descriptive method, the effective role of border marketplaces on traffic flow and its geopolitical elements have been studied in this research. The data have been gathered via field and library researches and archived documentations.
 
Results and Discussion
Local people are not completely satisfied with security established by central government. However, a relative satisfaction on their local security is imaginable. Such imperfect acquiescence with life circumstances and the absence of exhaustive security lead to an economic instability. Since development and security have very close interrelations, comprehensive socio-economic development of frontiersmen seems being necessary to secure the border areas. The most important weaknesses which cause traffic flow on borders might be pointed out as following:

Unemployment
Border closure
Negligence of government
Decrease in the number of tourists
Lack of attention to rural areas
Rural economic weakness, compared with their neighboring cities
Lack of security as a result of terrorist gangs, and
Lack of foreign investments in the cities.

Considering the ethnic and cultural ties between the people of the two countries, the ground of a free trade zone seems being provided, while existing homogenous masses can be helpful to decrease tensions in establishing such zones. Controlling policies of contraband in the region not only are not suitable but have also been operated in ways that have caused economic backwardness and unemployment.
 
Conclusion
Analyzing the results, it has been gotten that more employment and establishment of local marketplaces can lead to accumulation of stagnant and erratic moneys, guiding people toward trading, increasing security and limiting the smuggling process, economic stability and development of frontiers life style. Developing and securing the border rural regions of the province (Kermanshah) and economic investment on their local marketplaces can lessen both the differences between villages and cities and the size of their slices in welfare. Preventing the immigration of villagers to cities can also prepare substantially appropriate and secure economic, cultural, and sociological grounds.
Since, as an accepted principle, the human factor has the main role in securing the society; villagers should be supported to return to the frontier zones boosting their local marketplaces. In other words, the border’s security and economic stability are not strictly depended on military aspects, but there are other economic, sociological and ideological aspects. These can play vital roles in the establishment of internal and international security and development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • border exchanges
  • borderland bazaarche (market)
  • Economic stability
  • security
  • smuggling
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