عنوان مقاله [English]
In Iran, after cities expansion and urban population growth, the issue of Quality of Life (QOF) has been concerned in our cities. There is great difference between urban neighborhoods regarding to QOF level. In the recent decades, the old area of the city with peripheral growth around it as new quarters has concentrated population and many of services and facilities with infrastructures and utilities deficiency. This rapid physical growth has changed and destructed the old quarters. Meanwhile, lack of some novel facilities and population demand exist in these areas. On the other hand, it is essential to evaluate urban plans and implementations success in new quarters for the future planning. It must promote existing challenges. Nowadays, disregarding the QOF in urban areas has led to ecological segregation, marginal settlement, poor and social inequality, environmental, moral and human issues, gap and dispersion between different neighborhoods and segregation from each other. This paper with assessment of QOF in two old and new quarters of Sanandaj attempts to find the factors that can be used to promote QOF in each quarter. For this, one quarter selected from old ones (Qatarchian quarter) and another is new (Zafarieh).
This research has an analytical-descriptive method based on survey and questionnaire distribution among the residents. Other data collected by field surveys of researchers. Regarding the aims of this research, main parameters are derived from literatures, practices and field survey in the quarters and structured by a hierarchy from top to down (analytical). The obtained model is based on the tree diagram that has four levels including criteria, parameters and items. For assessment of QOF, a questionnaire with 45 questions has been designed which reflects experiences and mentalities of the residents about QOF. The questions are based on Likert spectrum (the minimum score is 1, maximum is 5 and mean is 3). For validity of the tool, we used the Cronbach's Alpha method. Based on the result of this method, Alpha value is 0.916 that confirms their validity well. For analysis of data, we have used SPSS software based on the multiple Regression, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results and Discussion
In this paper, satisfaction of residents has been evaluated in term of assessment of QOF regarding to economic, social and physical aspects of urban life. These aspects are specialized on two quarters as old and new ones. To do this, the mentioned criteria have been derived from various theoretical and practical studies around the world. Also, the manuscript is taylored to the study area conditions. Each of the above criteria including social, economic and physical have been divided into some parameters. These parameters have been used for QOF assessment in the quarters. The results of the studies related to each aspect (Physical, Economic and Social) are mentioned in following section.
In physical criterion, five factors including the housing, the quarter, the transportation, the green space and solid waste collection have been selected as the parameters. Regarding to the residents score dedicated to these parameters for the two quarters, the average scores of Zafarieh quarter in the five parameters are above theoretical average and more than mean limit. But about Qatarchian these are lower than theoretical average.
For evaluating this, we select four parameters including individual security, health situation, sense of place and relationship with neighbors. Investigation of average scores shows that satisfaction of Zafarieh residents about four factors are more than theoretical average. Resident scores of Qatarchian quarter shows level of satisfaction for individual security parameter is lower than moderate level which is because of lack of good lighting in the quarter, crimes and lack of security and safety for women and children.
This criterion has been evaluated based on five parameters including economic situation, health facilities, recreational facilities, educational centers, and commercial centers in the two quarters. Average of the scores related to the resident of the quarters indicated that satisfaction level of Zafarieh quarter for some factors such as economic situation, recreational facilities, educational and commercial centers is more than moderate. About Qatarchian quarter, the maximum average of the resident satisfaction is related to commercial centers. This may be because of vicinity of this quarter to the city center and good access to commercial centers.
The study of QOF in the two old and new quarters of Sanandaj indicates that QOF in new fabrics of the city is better than old ones. Examination of average of the scores confirmed that while in Zafarieh quarter maximum satisfaction is related to the physical dimension, in Qatarchian it is related to the social dimension. This can mainly occur because of great social capital phenomenon in the Qatarchian where the oldest structures, social relationships and sense of cooperation affect this factor. Results of T test in Zafarieh shows that three factors including the quarter, sense of place and the transportation have the highest rate of resident satisfaction and three parameters including commercial cores, sanitary facilities and neighbor relationships have the lowest level of satisfaction. The highest level of resident satisfaction in Qatarchian is based on the results of T test and related to health situation, commercial centers and neighbor relationships and the lowest rate because of low permeability for cars to crossing in the quarter is related to the transport, housing and solid waste collection parameters.