مدیریت شهری و تعارض ناشی از الحاق نقاط روستایی به محدوده شهرها (نمونه موردی: شهر اسلامشهر و روستای شاطره)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت امور شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات

3 کارشناس ارشد طراحی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات

چکیده

یکی از تأثیرهای شهرگرایی شتابان بر ساختار فضایی و جمعیتی کشور، رشد فزایندة شهرها و تبدیل مراکز روستایی به نقاط متصل یا منفصل شهری است که سبب برهم­خوردن تعادل توزیع فضایی جمعیت می­شود. با توجه به ناهمخوانی عوامل متعدد مانند اجتماعی، اقتصادی، کالبدی، مدیریتی و... در نقاط شهری و روستایی، الحاق نقاط روستایی به محدودة شهرها، به ایجاد مشکل­های عدیده منجر خواهد شد. یکی از مهم­ترین عوامل ایجاد تعارض، نبود رویکرد یکسان مدیریتی در نقاط شهری و روستایی است که بر سایر عوامل نیز تأثیرگذار است؛ بنابراین، در مقالة حاضر با موردکاوی الحاق روستای شاطره به محدودة اسلامشهر سعی شده است تأثیر نبود رویکرد مدیریتی یکسان در نقاط روستایی و شهری و همچنین جایگاه مدیریت شهری در حل تعارض­های ناشی از الحاق نقاط روستایی به محدودة شهری بررسی شود. این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی است که با استفاده از مطالعه­های اسنادی و میدانی وسیع و تکمیل 220 پرسشنامه از سوی خانوارهای ساکن در اسلامشهر و روستای شاطره و همچنین اخذ 30 پرسشنامه از مسئولان و کارشناسان سازمان­های ذیربط استان تهران انجام شده است. نتایج نشان می­دهد که برخلاف نبود تفاوت معنادار بین عوامل مدیریتی اسلامشهر و روستای شاطره، عوامل کالبدی شهر و روستا تفاوت معناداری دارند و ناهمگونی رویکرد مدیریت در نقاط شهری و روستایی، عاملی مؤثر در ایجاد تعارض است. از سویی دیگر، مدیریت شهری در حل این تعارض­ها نقشی اساسی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Urban Management and the Conflict Caused by Adjunction of the Rural to Urban Areas (Case study: Islamshahr and Shatereh)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Noorikermani 1
  • Naghmeh Mohammadpourlima 2
  • Farshid Alizad Minaabad 3
1 Assistant professor of geography and urban planning; Islamic Azad University
2 MA in management of urban affairs, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
3 MA in urban design, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The effects of rapid urbanization on the structure of space and population have been observed in the past half a century. There is ever growing number of cities with alteration of village centers into scattered urban areas. This alternative has turned over the balance of space distribution of the population, which has caused massive social harms. Accessions of rural areas to urban areas have caused countless urban management problems. When it comes to social, economic and cultural elements there are no compatibility between these populated areas. Lack of unified rules and regulations in urban and rural areas causes fundamental disagreement in management of these areas, which in turn will be the cause of all the difficulties. Existence of these types of difficulties is grounds for all sorts of problems affecting the performance of those who are involved in urban management and affect their duties. Better services could be provided to the current and old citizens with accurate planning towards reduction of these problems. Currently the process of preparation and passing “the design of urban district of Tehran province plan” and the phenomena of accession of rural areas to the urban areas are affecting the cities of this province. The expansion of urban space and its alteration into unified social and cultural population centers have added to the problems in the surrounding areas. Social and residential areas, unsuitable job structures, social failure and economic poverty have caused urban damages, as well as spread of crime and unsecure living environment. 
Accession of urban areas and rural spaces have caused social, economic, cultural and managerial damages in both urban and rural areas. This needs additional consideration to reform these problems. Therefore, recognition of social, political and economic structures has very important roles in creation of these situations in addition to presenting a solution for removing these inequalities in spatial and social areas.
IslamShahr is one of the most important cities of Tehran province in Iran. This research investigates the process of preparation and approval plan of strategic and structural accession of urban area of IslamShahr-RobatKarim. Rural area of Shatereh village was joined separately to IslamShahr City. Its population was a rural community until the recent years.It has been altered into a city population with their social, economic and cultural differences, not to mention their different performances when it comes to administrative and physical factors.
This project has tried to review the problems which were caused by these phenomena, along with offering solutions to urban management in order to solve these problems and complications. Connection of the rural areas to the urban areas, recently the process of preparation and passing “the design of urban district of Tehran province plan” is noticeably affecting different cities of the province such as accession of Shatereh village to IslamShahr City. It was passed according to the comprehensive plan. Therefore, in this research, we try to examine the effects of unequal management between rural and urban areas. This paper tries to determine the role of urban management in the process of solving the problems produced by accession of rural areas to urban areas.
 
Methodology
This is a descriptive - analytical study and the data presented here are collected from different sources including observations, questionnaire and statistical analysis of research hypothesis. The statistical analysis of the data was performed by using the Eta Index and T-test for independent groups in SPSS software. Islamshahr, one of the biggest cities of Tehran province, is the case study of the research. This study uses analytic and descriptive methods with the help of vast documented studies and field studies such as 220 questionnaires from resident families of Shatereh village and Islam Shahr City. The 30 questionnaires were filled bythe skilled experts of related organizations of Tehran city.
In order to test the hypothesis, this study uses two separate sample population from both the city and the village. The Cochran formula with a confidence level of 95%,a precision of 0.1, and variance of 0.25 is used to determine the sample volume. The 120 questioners were successfully completed; 96 questionnaires in Islamshahr city and 92 questionnaires in Shaetereh village.
 
Results and discussion
This paper investigates the differences between each of the social, economic, cultural, physical and managerial factors in rural and urban areas. It aims to investigate status and role of urban management in decreasing the conflicts resulted from the incorporation of rural areas into the city limitations.
According to the study, the average of social, cultural and physical factors is higher in Islamshahr City whereas the average of economic and managerial factors is higher in Shatereh village. Eta average has been used to test the intensity of the difference between the factors in the city and the village.
The current study shows that although there are no significant differences in social and managerial elements between Islamshahr and Shatareh, there is a significant difference in among their culture, economic and structural elements. These differences are effective in creating problems in the villages and the cities. Lack of equal management in urban and rural areas have also caused many problems. Management based on regulations plays an important role in solving the problems caused by accession of villages to urban areas.
 
 
 
Conclusion
This study suggests a change of view through which an equal outlook is required in creating new regulations and delivering services in cities and villages. The case by case investigation of the probable conflicts caused by accession of each village to the city area is also required. Special designs of urban management in the cities with connected rural areas with the outlook of creation of an urban management are based on rules and regulations. As well as special designs of urban management in the cities with connected rural areas with the outlook of creating an urban management based on rules and regulations is necessary to have a systematic observation of urban management and the management based on the rules specially designed to control the urban management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Management Factors
  • Urban Management
  • City areas
  • Accession
  • Islamshahr
. امانی، سیدمهدی ، 1380 ، جمع ی ت شناس ی عموم ی ا ی ران، انتشارات سمت، تهران .
2 . پاپلی یزدی، محمد و دیگران، 1389 ، نظر ی ه ها ی شهر و پ ی رامون، چاپ پنجم، انتشارات سمت، تهران .
3 . پوراحمد، احمد و دیگران، 1385 ، آس ی ب شناس ی طرح ها ی توسعة شهر در کشور، فصلنامة پژوهش هاای جغرافیاایی، شامارة 58 ،
صص 167 - 186 .
4 . حافظ نیا، محمدرضا، 1388 ، مقدمه ا ی بر پژوهش در علوم انسان ی ، انتشارات سمت، تهران .
5 . حسامیان، فرخ، اعتماد، گیتی و محمدرضا حائری، 1388 ، شهرنش ی ن ی در ا ی ران ، انتشارات آگاه، تهران .
6 . حصاری، علی، 1387 ، تحولات شهرنش ی ن ی در ا ی ران، مجلة تحلیلی الف .
7 . خاکی، غلامرضا، 1387 ، روش تحق ی ق با رو ی کرد ی به پا ی ان نامه نو ی س ی ، چاپ چهارم، انتشارات بازتاب، تهران .
8 . دبیرخانة شورای عالی معماری و شهرسازی معاونت شهرسازی و معماری وزارت مسکن و شهرسازی، 1388 ، مقرررات شهرسراز ی و
معمار ی و طرح ها ی توسعه و عمران مصوب شورا ی عال ی شهرساز ی و معمار ی ا ی ران .
9 . رهنمایی، محمدتقی و دیگران، 1383 ، فرا ی ند برنامه ر ی ز ی شهر ی ا ی ران، انتشارات سمت، تهران .
10 . سازمان شهرداری ها و دهیاری های کشور، 1389 ، دانشنامة مد ی ر ی ت شهر ی و روستا یی .
11 . شکویی، حسین، 1364 ، جغراف ی ا یی کاربرد ی و مکتب ها ی جغراف ی ا یی ، انتشارات آستان قدس رضوی، مشهد .
12 . شکویی، حسین، 1374 ، د ی دگاه ها ی نو در جغراف ی ا ی شهر ی ، چاپ دوم، انتشارات سمت، تهران .
13 . کارگر، بهمن و رحیم سرور، 1390 ، شهر، حاش ی ه و امن ی ت اجتماع ی ، انتشارات سازمان جغرافیایی نیروهای مسلح، تهران .
14 . مهدی زاده، جواد، 1382 ، برنامه ر ی ز ی راهبرد ی توسعة شهر ی ، مرکز تحقیقات شهرسازی و معماری ایران .
15 . مهدی زاده، جواد، 1385 ، اطلاعات سرشمار ی عموم ی نفوس و مسکن، مرکز آمار ایران، تهران .
16 . مهدی زاده، جواد، 1390 ، گزارش علل و آثار تبد ی ل روستاها به شهر، دفتر برنامه ریزی و بودجاة معاونات برناماه ریازی اساتانداری
تهران، تهران .
17 . مهدی زاده، جواد، 1382 ، طرح هاد ی روستا ی شاطره، مشاور دشت ی ، بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی استان تهران .
18 . مهدی زاده، جواد، 1388 ، طرح راهبرد ی - ساختار ی شهر اسلامشهر، مهندسین مشاور آبان، سازمان مسکن و شهرسازی .
19. Aban Consulting Engineers, 2009, Comprehensive plan of Islamshahr city, Organization of Housing and Urbanism of Tehran province. (In Persian)
20. Amani, M., 2001, General Demography of Iran, Samt Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
21. Amy k.hahs, Mark J. Mcdonnell, 2005, Selecting Independent Measure toQuantity Melbourne Urban-Rural Gradient, Land urban plan Journal,
22. AvijtaGupto, Rafi, A., 1999, Geomorphology and the Urban Tropics, Elsiver Science.
23. Dashti Counselor, 2003, Conductor Plan of Shatareh Village, Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation of Tehran province. (In Persian)
24. Department of Planning and Budget, 2011, Report of the Causes and Effects of Conversion Rural into Urban, Tehran Governor's Office, Tehran. (In Persian)
25. Hafeznia, M., 2009, An Introduction to the Research Method in Humanities, Samt Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
26. Hesari, A., 2008, Developments of Urbanization in Iran, Barname Magazine, No. 291, PP. 10-16. (In Persian)

27. Hessamian, F., Etemad, G. and Haeri, M., 2009, Urbanization in Iran, 7th Ed, Agah Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
28. Iran Statistics Center, 2006, Information of Public Census of Housing and Population.
29. Kargar, B. and Sarvar, R., 2011, City, Margins and Social Security, Organization of Geographical Armed Forces Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
30. Khaki, Gh., 2008, Research Method with Thesis Approach, 4th Ed, Baztab Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
31. Mahdizadeh, J., 2003, Strategic Planning of Urban Development, Architecture & Urbanism research center of Iran, Tehran. (In Persian)
32. Organization of Municipalities and Rural municipality, 2010, Encyclopedia of Urban and Rural Management, Tehran. (In Persian)
33. Papliyazdi, M. and Rajabi sanajerdi, H., 2010, The Theory of Urban and Surrounding, 1st Ed, Samt Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
34. Pourahmad, A., 2006, Pathology of the City Development Projects in the Country, Journal of Geographical Research, No. 58, PP. 167-186. (In Persian)
35. Rahnamaee, M. and Shahhosseini, P., 2010, Process of Urban Planning in Iran, 9th Ed, Samt Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
36. Scott, A., Alana G. and AyeleGelan, 2007, The Urban-Rural Divide: Myth or Reality? Macaulay Institute, Design and Layout by Claudia Carter and Pat Carnegie.
37. Shokouee, H., 1984, Geographic Applications and school of Geographical, Astan Ghods Publications, Mashahd. (In Persian)
38. Shokouee, H., 2012, New Perspectives in Urban Geography, 15th Ed, Samt Publications, Tehran. (In Persian)
39. The Supreme Secretariat of the Council Architecture and Urban Planning, 2009, Terms of Architecture & Urbanism and Development Projects Approved by the Iranian Supreme Council Architecture & Urbanism, Department of Architecture & Urbanism, Ministry of Housing and Urbanism, Tehran. (In Persian)No 160, PP. 671-685