تمایزهای منطقه‌ای در بازار کار شایستۀ مناطق شهری

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکدۀ اقتصاد، مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه یزد

2 کارشناس ارشد علوم اقتصادی، دانشگاه یزد

چکیده

مکان و بازار کار، دو عنصر تعیین‌کنندۀ تمایز در اقتصاد تلقی می­شوند و همچنان­که می‌توان بازار کار را برحسب معیارهایی چون شاخص کار شایسته تحلیل کرد، انواع مکان را می‌توان برحسب مناطق شهری و روستایی از یکدیگر تفکیک ساخت. بر این ‌اساس، این مقاله با هدف تبیین شاخص کار شایسته در مناطق شهری استان‌های ایران و در دو مقطع زمانی 1384 و 1388 به‌عنوان سال‌های ابتدایی و انتهایی برنامۀ چهارم، برای سنجش شاخص کار شایسته، از هشت معیار اساسی نرخ مشارکت اقتصادی، نرخ بیکاری، نرخ بیکاری جوانان، نسبت اشتغال به جمعیت، میزان کار با ساعات بیش‌ازحد، تعداد زنان مزدبگیر در بخش صنعت، تعداد زنان مزدبگیر در بخش کشاورزی و تعداد زنان مزدبگیر در بخش خدمات استفاده شده است. تلفیق شاخص‌های مذکور نیز با استفاده از روش تاپسیس صورت گرفته است. نتایج نشان می­دهد میانگین کار شایسته در بازار کار مناطق شهری ایران در سال پایانی برنامۀ چهارم توسعه (1388)، در مقایسه با سال ابتدایی آن (1384) افزایش یافته و علاوه­برآن، مناطق شهری از حیث این شاخص با همگرایی در این دوره به‌سوی همگنی بیشتر پیش رفته‌اند. با وجود این و براساس نتایج، همگرایی و همگنی رخ­داده در مناطق شهری برای تمامی استان‌ها در روند مذکور از هر حیث، دارای اهمیت است و به­عبارتی نگرش منطقه‌ای در بهبود کار شایستۀ مناطق شهری از هر جهت امری ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Regional differences in the work market in urban areas

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Feizpour 1
  • Ezatollah Lotfi 2
  • Malihe Raufi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Economics, Faculty of Economics, Management and Accountancy College, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
2 MA in Economics, Faculty of Economics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Manpower is one of the most important factors of production through participation in the production process. This thread is argued in the economic doctrines so that from the perspective of economic doctrines and growth models, increase in the proportion of labor with other factors of production can ensure the economic growth. The importance of labor has caused labor market directly associated with labor. It can always play an important role in the developing countries among the four economic markets. A point that should be considered in the investigation of the labor market is employment and unemployment located as a assessed benchmark of labor market performance. Based on new literature presented by the International Labour Organization to assess the labor market, not only the employment and unemployment should be considered, but it is required to consider also the quantity and the quality of the market. This approach to labor market leads to formation of the concept of decent work in this market. The terms of decent work have different meanings and each country makes sense special perception of that depending on its development. But the terms should emphasize on employment and suitable individuals with good income and job safety and security. In addition, in order to realize decent work, ILO follow four strategic objective to protect labor rights, protection of employment, strengthening of social protection and social security, and strengthening of social dialogue. The Mentioned Quad objectives are reinforcing each other. Accordingly, with respect to this topic, present study tries to examine the combination of decent work indicators by using TOPSIS Method and calculation Index of decent work segregation in urban areas of Iran. This will make as assessment and comparison of labor market in these areas.
 
Methodology 
This study regarding the type of research is as applied study and from method of data gathering was considered as a field research. This study attempts to examine situation of labor market of urban areas of Iran provinces regarding decent work indicator and with integrated indicators. Although there are different ways to integrate the indicators for decent work, calculation the decent index and finally assess the level of market development in urban areas. However, in this study the development level of urban labor market is determined by TOPSIS method. This method combined 8 indicators of decent work. The decent work indicators were calculated for each urban area of the provinces and during the studied period.
 
Results and Discussion 
The results indicate that average of decent work increased from about 0.25 in the first year of fourth plan to nearly 0.31 in the final year in the urban areas labor market. It is dropped in standard deviations of the provinces. These two changes have made the decent work coefficient of variation to reduce dramatically between these two periods. This finding represents the convergence regions of the Iran from the perspective of decent work. Nevertheless, the changes made in decent work of urban areas of Iran provinces in the two periods 2005 and 2009 indicate that country's decent working conditions improved in the 22 provinces during this period. This is while eight provinces have also experienced in this respect the worse situation. In addition, most of the changes were made in the three provinces of Tehran, Hormozgan and Markazi in this period and these provinces were improved more than 0.2 in decent work indicator. This is while in the other group the worst situation happened in West Azerbaijan Province and Three provinces of South Khorasan, Yazd and Qom.
 
Conclusion 
According to the results of this study despite improvement of index decent work in 2009 than 2005 in most provinces of Iran, it is still required to consider major regional differences in the changes occurred in urban areas decent work indicator. This finding suggests that despite the improvement in the national level, in order to balance regional, planning for regional labor market is necessary and unavoidable.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • decent work
  • Labor Market
  • TOPSIS method
  • urban areas of Iran
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