نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری و روستایی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی
عنوان مقاله [English]
Welfare is to provide a minimal level of well-being and social support for all citizens, sometimes referred to as public aid. In most developed countries welfare is largely provided by the government, and to a lesser extent, charities, informal social groups, religious groups, and inter-governmental organizations.
Although, in Iran, the background of related actions for social security, support to poor people and the vulnerability of rural people have more than fifty years of background. But it didn’t have considerable achievement in poverty reduction and vulnerability in the rural areas of country. Quality of life and social welfare of people and the rural locations are related to more factors such as employment, appropriate income, and access to services, education and health, natural environment, security and strong public relations. The social welfare of rural people including a series of tactics and social support by relying on participation of the rural people and governmental and non-governmental institutions in the rural areas to promote the plans of rural development to formulate eradication of severe needs of rural people in the rural areas and preservation self-esteem and human dignity. A research on reinforcement of social welfare in the rural areas has showed that different factors such as economic, environmental, psychological, and social, institutional factors has considerable effects on promotion of social welfare in the rural areas. The aim of this paper is to do a survey about influencing factors on promotion of social welfare in the rural areas.
The purpose of the present study was to explain the factors influencing promotion of social welfare in the rural areas of Meshkinshar County. The research method was analytical –descriptive survey. Target population in the study was the rural people in Meshkinshar County. The needed information was collected by means of questionnaire from rural people in Meshkinshar County. All the rural population is 90359 people. In addition, to determine sample size the rural peoples in the study area, we used Cochran formula. Finally, the sample size of 196 people of the rural public was determined. To enhance the amount of accuracy and validity of results, the sample size was increased up to 200. Researcher questionnaire was used as a tool of measurement. The content and face validity of the instrument was specified after several times of review and correction by the faculty members in university and several expertise of administrative offices. The reliability analysis was conducted and Cronbach’s alpha values for the various sections of instrument were estimated to be between 0.83 and 0.90. To analyze the research data, we used a factor analysis model.
At the end, the results showed that the most important affecting factors to social welfare of rural people in the study area are components such as economic empowerment and income redistribution, social empowerment and reinforcement of social capital, environmental empowerment, promotion of social admission, psychological empowerment, social participation reinforcement and delivering of extensional services. The accumulated variance value is (68.5) via these six factors. Finally, based on the results analysis, some applied recommendations have been provided
Results and Discussion
The results indicated that the raising of individual and public incomes, reinforcement of entrepreneurship, improvement of physical infrastructures, presentation of local economy services, raising of agricultural productivity, diversification of economic activities, economic empowerment, redistribution of income and employment, reinforcement of economic infrastructure, consolidation of scatterd rural residents, social empowerment, self-helping, promotion of social security, reinforcement of social interactions, social cooperatives, social integration, social alliance, social communication, access to social services, social fulfillment, psychological empowerment, social dignity, creativity, improvement of motivation, responsibility, quality of agricultural water resources, life facilities of rural people, quality of water and soil resources, social belonging, social participation, reinforcement of instituational-social confidence, presentation of extensional services, rate of net income and access to credits, mental health, exchange of information and knowledge, reinforcement of people complexes, food security, education and social reception paly important role in promotion of social welfare in the rural areas.
The descriptive results of research showed that the number of sample has been in the range of 31 to 40 years old people. Marriage condition has been 77% of married people and 22% of single people. In this research, 44 indices have been employed to understand the factors influencing the promotion of rural people in social welfare in the study area. The data are analyzed by using factor analysis. With attention to KMO, 6 factors were exploited with eigenvalue higher than 1 to effective factors on promotion of social welfare in the rural areas. After rotation of factors the variables related to social welfare were classified on the 6 factors. The research results suggested development of attractive rural areas via income and rural people employment, helpful development of educational and cultural spaces , creation of recreational and residential centers in the rural areas, emphasis on native regional specialties and formulation of community-based plans, use of native people to design , planning, performance and supervision to local development programs, attention to empowerment in different levels, capacity-building, plans of rural people empowerment by exciting participation in the rural areas, and definition of exciting mechanisms for promotion of local social capital in term of native specialties of the regions can help to promote rural people social welfare and rural sustainability.