نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه یزد
2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
عنوان مقاله [English]
The urban green space is very important as a critical component in urban planning. Thus, in most issues about parks and urban green spaces it can improve people's quality of life as an important strategy. Parks and urban green spaces can provide valuable recreational opportunities for those who live in cities. They also create a natural environment and biodiversity for many people to provide physical and mental well-being. Dedication of an area to create a park and the preservation of it can increase economic costs to the relevant bodies. Unfortunately, despite the importance of these ecosystems, such as environmental services, they are inalienable and cannot be completely absorbed. It has different commercial markets, in comparison with other financial services. Environmental economists do believe that the economic value services and benefits for non-market recreational parks and green spaces, is essential for any urban area. Long-term neglect of these areas may cause irreversible damage to the natural resources and sustainable development process. They also believe that estimation of the value of parks and recreational activities to improve environmental policies can be effective to achieve sustainable development indicators. Therefore, to quantify and determine the monetary value of parks and green spaces can play a double role in the integrated management of human and natural systems.
The necessity of attention to the parks in Mashhad because of some population and tourism condition of this city caused a great importance. It caused different environmental and economical services provided by a picturesque view of the city. This calls attention of planners to cities management.
According to casting Valve project, the economic entertainment activity in big parks in Mashhad could be effective in microclimate condition of the city and other condition rather than smaller parks. This is very beneficial. In this research, we tried to discuss about the value of entertainment of parks from viewer point of view by using a twofold - double questionnaire and their Willingness To Pay (WTP) and (CV). In other words, the willingness to pay to use the facilities and services available at the parks and recreational value, they say. The research that has been done in the field estimate the recreational value of forest parks promenades, especially outside of the cities studied and large parks within the city has to estimate the recreational value has not been given. Due to the great recreational value of urban parks need to understand when considering that the large parks in Mashhad about 17 percent of the total area of parks and green spaces are the city of Mashhad.
According to the goals of this research, we have used two ways of application. First, in background of this project, we figure out how to achieve our goals. Then, we marked the biggest parts of Mashhad. Second, we marked the quantity of this project by double questionnaire and sample method. Then, we start study about parks by SPSS software. We discuss about the viewer character. Valuation and variable models of people willingness to pay was calculated. Finally, the values of parks were specified in the city.
Results and Discussion
According to the results of this research, the mean payment of Koohsangi Park is 7815.5 Rials and for each annual visit of Koohsangi Park it is 110160123.791 Rials.WTP value for Mellat Park is 10000 Rials according to each visit. The value of entertainment of Mellat Park is 243085755.813 Rials and also the mean value of entertainment of each hectare in Mellat Park for each family is 579600 Rials. Among 136 of 170 respondents how were asked in Koohsangi Park, 80 Percent of them were ready to pay cash to use this parks facilities and in contrast 34 respondents (20 Percent) of people were not eager to pay. Among 155 respondents out of the 169 respondents who are asked in Mellat Park, 91.7 percent of them were ready to pay cash and 3.8 percent were ready to pay for parks facilities.
To increase the recreational value of parks, some suggestions can be recommended. The efforts of improving the quality of urban parks in Mashhad can be caused by increase in viewer and their willingness to pay for facilities. In this case, the policies for keeping standard of environment and creation of some jobs would be a remarkable achievement. The results of this research show that the values of people WTP for Mellat and Koohsangi parks can be caused to decide for investment. For improving culture to save their environment, it’s better to have advertisement from the organizations related to this case. Therefore, it is recommended that, the management of parks should be studied in same special monthes of year with fewer visitors of the parks. Hooding festivals culture activities and more facilities can be suitable for their relaxation and entertainment.