تحلیل آثار زیست‌محیطی گردشگری خانه‌های دوم از دیدگاه جامعۀ میزبان و مهمان (مطالعۀ موردی: روستاهای ناحیۀ دوهزار، شهرستان تنکابن)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مدیریت جهانگردی، دانشکدۀ علوم انسانی و اجتماعی، دانشگاه مازندران

2 قطب برنامه‌ریزی روستایی ایران، استاد دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

گردشگری خانه‌های دوم، یکی از الگوهای مهم گردشگری در نواحی روستایی است که آثار و پیامدهایی را در فضاهای روستایی در ابعاد مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست‌محیطی دارد. هدف مقالۀ حاضر، بررسی آثار و پیامدهای زیست‌محیطی گردشگری خانه‌های دوم در منطقۀ دوهزار است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی است و داده‌های مورد نیاز، به روش تکمیل پرسشنامه جمع­آوری شده است. درحال‌حاضر 640 خانۀ دوم در منطقه استفاده می‌شود که تقریباً 50 هکتار از کل اراضی منطقه، بر اثر توسعۀ این نوع گردشگری تغییر کاربری داده است. یافته‌ها بیانگر آن است که این نوع گردشگری، در منطقۀ دوهزار گسترش زیادی داشته است و اعضای جامعۀ مورد مطالعه، به آثار و پیامدهای منفی زیست‌محیطی گردشگری خانه‌های دوم اذعان دارند، اما در زمینۀ آثار و پیامدهای زیست‌محیطی این نوع گردشگری، بین دیدگاه­های ساکنان محلی و صاحبان خانه‌های دوم اختلاف معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین از دیدگاه هردو گروه، مهم‌ترین پیامد زیست‌محیطی توسعۀ گردشگری در روستاهای دهستان دوهزار، مربوط به گویه­های تغییر کاربری اراضی است که البته تفاوت معناداری بین دو دیدگاه وجود دارد. همچنین کمترین تفاوت در دیدگاه‌های این دو گروه، در آلودگی محیط و چشم‌انداز ظاهری است. تفاوت میانگین‌ها در دو گروه 3/0 است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the environmental impacts of second home tourism from the perspective of the host community and visitors (Case Study: villages of Dohear region, Tonekabon township)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Ramezanzadeh Lasboyee 1
  • Mohammad Reza Rezvani 2
  • Mohamad Akbarpour 3
1 Assistant Professor, Tourism Management, Faculty of Humanity and Social Science, University of Mazandaran, Mazandaran, Iran
2 Professor, Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Literature, Razi University of Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
One of the critical criteria in sustainable tourism development approach is to support the attitudes of inhabitants. Local resident support for tourism development is critical because successful operation and sustainability depend heavily on their good will. Therefore, planning in respect to sustainable tourism development should be on the basis of the goals and priorities of local residents. The objective of this research is to determine factors affecting attitudes of second home tourism development and environmental impacts in rural areas of Dohezar County. The case study target is located in Tonekaboon Township in Mazandaran province. 
 
Methodology
Second home tourism development has been considered as the independent variable and environmental impacts have been considered as dependent variables. From 16 villages of Do Hezar Rural District (50%) 8 villages have been studied due to the extensive research problems. The study population includes households of Do Hezar Rural District equal to 486 households among which 150 householders namely 30% of the total population were selected as sample using Cochran formula. The other population are the owners of second homes that were selected as 100 subjects as the statistical population from 640 people. The collected data are as objective and subjective indicators. In this study, the number of second homes, the amount of waste generated in the tourism and non-tourism seasons are as objective indicator and guest and host community attitudes in relation to environmental factors are as subjective indicators in this study. Hence, based on the initial field study and study goal and review of the intellectual foundations, the variables were assessed in terms of questionnaires of rural residents and second home owners. Reliability was calculated as 0.743 using Cronbach's alpha. The t-test was used to analyze the variables and infer, depending on the type of data, scale of variables and intended objectives by the descriptive-statistical methods such as mean.  The statistical analysis methods such as regression and generalized views of the entire population of the one-sample t-test have also been employed to understand the gap between two communities in relation to environmental variables.
 
Results and Discussion
Studies show that a total of 640 second homes are used currently in the area. With allocation of 121 square meters to each house and the allocation of 640 square meters recreational space for each residential unit, approximately 50 acres of the total land have changed the use due to this type of tourism development. Results indicate that this type of tourism has developed in Do Hezar Region and the study population has acknowledged the negative environmental effects of second homes tourism. But in relation to the environmental effects of this type of tourism there are significant differences between local residents and second home owners. Other findings indicate that from the perspective of both groups, the most important environmental outcome of tourism development in the villages of Do Hezar rural district is related to the changes of land use although there are significant differences between the two approaches. The least difference in the viewpoints of two groups is related to the environmental pollution and apparent landscape and the mean difference is 0.3 in the two groups.
 
Conclusion
The results show that tourism development is highly important in the region so that in total, more than 53% of rural homes of the study area are second homes. The mean of distance in time and space for second homes and main homes in the study area is equal to 210 kilometers and the wasted time to reach second homes is equal to 230 minutes. In most cases, from the viewpoint of the guest community, however, this type of tourism development has resulted in negative consequences. But, this is a natural consequence and on the contrary from the viewpoint of host community tourism development in second homes of Do Hezar rural district, it has left strong negative effects.   The total means confirm this status in relation to most indicators. The key point in this study is that both communities analyze the conditions for their benefits but in general the field study of the researcher in the study area indicates that although second home tourism development in recent years has created jobs and increased local incomes in the study area but considerable changes in lands resulted in water shortage especially in hot seasons and holidays and reduced agricultural productivity and soil erosion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dohezar County
  • Environmental impacts
  • Rural Areas
  • second home tourism
  • Tonekabon

ضیایی محمود و زهرا صالحی­نسب، 1388، گونه­شناسی گردشگران خانه‌های دوم و بررسی آثار کالبدی آن‌ها بر نواحی روستایی (مطالعۀ موردی: رودبار)، فصلنامۀ پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، شمارۀ 66، صص 71- 84.

کاظمی، مهدی، 1385، مدیریت گردشگری، انتشارات سمت، تهران.

صالحی­نسب، زهرا، 1384، گردشگری خانه‌های دوم و آثار آن بر نواحی روستایی، پایان­نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیا، به راهنمایی محمدرضا رضوانی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران.

رضوانی، محمدرضا و جواد صفایی، 1384، گردشگری خانه‌های دوم و آثار آن بر نواحی روستایی: فرصت یا تهدید (مورد: نواحی روستایی شمال تهران)، پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، شمارۀ 54، صص 109- 121.

قنبری­نسب، علی، 1388، تحلیل جاپای بوم­شناختی گردشگری خانه‌های دوم در نواحی روستایی (مطالعۀ موردی: دهستان رودبار قصران- شهرستان شمیرانات)، پایان­نامۀ دورۀ کارشناسی ارشد، به راهنمایی محمد سلمانی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران.

رضوانی، محمدرضا، 1387، توسعۀ گردشگری روستایی با رویکرد گردشگری پایدار، انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، تهران.

رضوانی، محمدرضا، 1382، بررسی روند ایجاد و گسترش خانه‌های دوم در نواحی روستایی شمال تهران، پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی، شمارۀ 45، صص 59- 73.

مهدوی حاجیلویی، مسعود، قدیری معصوم، مجتبی و مهدی سنایی، 1387، نقش و تأثیر خانه­های دوم بر ساختار اقتصادی، اجتماعی ناحیۀ کلاردشت، پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی (پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی)، شمارۀ 65، صص 19- 31.

علیقلی زاده فیروزجایی، ناصر، 1386، آثار گردشگری بر ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی و محیطی نواحی روستایی (مطالعۀ موردی: نواحی روستایی بخش مرکزی شهرستان نوشهر)، رسالۀ دکتری دانشگاه تهران، تهران.

 

  1. Aligholizadeh Firouzjaie, N., 2006, Impactsof Tourism onEconomic, Social,Environmental andRural Areas (Case Study: Rural Areas, Central District in Nowshahr Township), PhD Thesis, University of Tehran, Tehran. (In Persian)
  2. Borge Julio, H., 2007, Linked Population and Second Homes Ingalicia, Boletín de la A.G.E. No. 43, PP. 375-377.
  3. Brida, J., 2007, Second Homes: The Effects on Social Welfare of a Change on the Valuation of Individual Opportunity Cost, Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, PP. 85-96.
  4. Deirdre, Q. and Darach, T., 2005, Touristic Transcendence and Post Modern Flitting: An Exploration of the Experiences of Second Home Owners, Tourism, Vol. 53, No. 4, PP. 301-310.
  5. Frost, W., 2003, Hidden Giant: Second Homes and Coastal Tourism in Southeastern Australia, Working Paper 80/03, PP.1-13.
  6. Ghanbarinasab, A., 2008, EcologicalFootprintAnalysis ofTourism,Second Homesin Rural Areas(Case Study: Roudbar Ghasran, Shemiranat Township), M.S Thesis, University of Tehran, Tehran. (In Persian)
  7. Haldrup, M., 2004, Laid-Back Mobilities: Second-Home Holidays in Time and Space, Tourism Geographies, Vol. 6, No. 4, PP. 434–454.
  8. Hall, C. M., 2005, Tourism: Rethinking the Social Science of Mobility, Harlow: Pearson.
  9. Hall, M. and Muler, D., 2004, Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes, Clevedon, Channel View Publications, UK.
  10. Hiltunen, M., 2007, Environmental Impacts of Rural Second Home Tourism (Case: Lake District in Finland), Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 7, No. 3, PP. 243–265.
  11. Hoogendoorn, G., Robyn, M. and Visser, G., 2005, Second Homes Tourism in Africa: Reflections on the South African Experience, Urban Forum, Vol. 16, No. 2-3, PP. 115-154.
  12. Kazemi, M., 2005, Tourism Management, Samt Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
  13. Landmark, L. and Marjavaara, R., 2005, Second Home Localizations in the Swedish Mountain Range, Original scientific paper, Vol. 53, No. 1, PP. 338-348.
  14. Lundmark, L., 2006, Mobility, Migration and Seasonal Tourism Employment: Evidence from Swedish Mountain Municipalities, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 6, No. 3, PP. 197–213.
  15. Mahdavi Hajiloui, M., Ghadiri Masoom, M and Sanaee, M., 2008, The Role and Impact of Secondary Houses on Economic and Social Structure of Kelardasht, Researches in Geography, Vol. 41, No. 3, PP. 19-31. (in Persian)
  16. Marjavaara, R., 2007, The Displacement Myth: Second Home Tourism in the Stockholm Archipelago, Tourism Geographies, Vol. 9, No. 3, PP. 296–317.
  17. Marjavaara, R. and Muller, D., 2007, The Development of Second Homes’ Assessed Property Values in Sweden 1991–2001, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 7, No. 3, PP. 202–222.
  18. Mazon, T., 2006, Inquiring into Residential Tourism: The Costa Blanca Case, Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, Vol. 3, No. 2, PP. 89–97.
  19. Muller, D., 2007, Second Homes in the Nordic Countries: Between Common Heritage and Exclusive Commodity Scandinavian, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 7, No. 3, PP. 193–201.
  20. Muller, D. K., 2004, Mobility, Tourism, and Second Homes, In: Lew, A. A., Hall, C. M. and Williams, A. M. (Eds), A Companion to Tourism, Blackwell, Cornwall.
  21. Müller, D. K., 2004, Second Homes in Sweden: Patterns and Issues, SE-901 87 Umea, Sweden, Tourism, Mobility and Second Homes: Between Elite Landscape and Common Ground.
  22. Muller, D., 2000, Second Home Tourism and Sustainable Development in North European Peripheries,Department of Social and Economic Geography, Umea University, Umea, Sweden, SE-901 87.
  23. Pettersson, R., 1999, Foreign Second Home Purchases- The Case of Northern Sweden, Umea University, CERUM, Centre for Regional Science.
  24. Quinn, D. and Darach, T., 2005, Touristic Transcendence and Post Modern Flitting: An Exploration of the Experiences of Second Home Owners, Journal of Tourism, Vol. 53, No. 4, PP. 301-310.
  25. Reiner, J., 1986, Second-Home Domestic Tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 13, No. 3. PP. 367-391.
  26. Rezvani, M. R., 2003, Analysis on the Creation and Spread of Second Homes in Rural Areas, Research in Geography, Vol. 45, No. 2, PP. 59-73. (In Persian)
  27. 27.  Rezvani, M. R., 2008, Rural Tourism Development (Sustainable Tourism Approach), Vol.1, University of Tehran Publication, Tehran. (In Persian)
  28. Rezvani, M. R. and Safaie, J., 2004, Second Home Tourism and Impact on Rural Area, Researches in Geograohy, Vol. 54, No. 4, PP.109-121. (In Persian)
  29. Salehinasab, Z., 2005, Second Home and Impact on Rural Area, Case study: Roudbar Ghasran, M.S Thesis, University of Tehran, Tehran. (In Persian)
  30. Tuulentie, S., 2007, Settled Tourists: Second Homes as a Part of Tourist Life Stories, Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Vol. 7, No. 3, PP. 281–300.
  31. Visser, G., 2006, South Africa has Second Homes Too: An Exploration of the Unexplored, Current Issues in Tourism, Vol. 9, No. 4-5, PP.138-151.
  32. Wang, X., 2006, The Second Homes Phenomenon in Haikou, China, for the Degree of Master of Arts in Planning, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
  33. Ziyaee, M. and Salehinasab, Z., 2008, Typology of Second Homes Tourists and Physical Impact on Rural Areas Case study: Roudbar Ghasran, Researches in Geography, Vol. 66, No. 4, PP.71-84. (In Persian)