منطقه گرایی و چالش های آن در روابط خارجی جمهوری اسلامی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی دانشکدة جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

4 کارشناس ارشد علوم سیاسی گرایش مطالعات ایران، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس

چکیده

 یکی از راهکارهای گسترش همکاری در جهان، همگرایی با استفاده از الگوی منطقه‌گرایی است. امروزه امنیت ملی هر کشوری از طریق همکاری منطقه‌ای و درادامه با تعامل و وابستگی متقابل جهانی ممکن می‌شود تا با گام‌های انفرادی و بدون همکاری و پشتیبانی منطقه‌ای و جهانی. بر این ‌اساس، در چند دهة اخیر و به‌ویژه از دهة 1980 به بعد، بسیاری از کشورهای دنیا با اتخاذ رویکرد منطقه‌گرایی و شکل‌دادن به تجارب موفقی در این راستا، زمینة انگیزش سایر کشورهای دنیا به گسترش منطقه‌گرایی را نیز فراهم کرده‌اند. جمهوری اسلامی ایران هم به‌عنوان کشوری تأثیرگذار و با موقعیت ژئواستراتژیک، با درک این ضرورت، با پایان‌یافتن جنگ تحمیلی و شروع‌به‌کار دولت سازندگی تاکنون، گرایش منطقه‌گرایی و همگرایی منطقه‌ای را متناسب با اهداف و آرمان‌های خود با فرازونشیب‌هایی در دستور کار داشته است، اما شرایط ویژة این کشور و تهدیدات امنیتی که همواره متوجه جمهوری اسلامی ایران بوده، سبب شده است که رویکرد منطقه‌گرایی ایران همواره با صبغه و برتری گرایش‌های امنیتی و سیاسی دنبال شود، حال آنکه تجارب موفق منطقه‌گرایی در دنیا با برتری دستورکارهای اقتصادی، نرم‌افزارانه و غیرامنیتی بوده است که در این پژوهش علاوه‌بر بررسی جنبه‌های مختلف منطقه‌گرایی، به دلایل اتخاذ رویکرد متفاوت جمهوری اسلامی ایران و ضرورت بازبینی در این رویکرد توجه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Regionalism and the challenges of regionalism in Iran foreign relations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bahador Zarei 1
  • Jalil Delshadzad 2
  • Seyed Mehdi Musavi Shahidi 3
  • Seyyed Mahmoud Alavi 4
1 Assistant Professor, Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Iran
2 MA in Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Iran
3 MA in Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Iran
4 MA in Political Science Orientation of Iranian Studies, Tarbiat Modarres University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
One of the ways to expand cooperation in today's world is convergence with the model of regionalism.  At the regional and global existing order, national security of each country comes more easily through the efforts of the government and the people to obtain and increase national wealth than through the efforts to build and collect hardware facilities and create an atmosphere of insecurity, fear and threat. Scientific and instrumental elites have raised convergence in various forms to pursue any conflict occurring in Europe since the early seventeenth century. Then, international cooperation and convergence by countries and global powers has also been considered. Although the Cold War era had put regional cooperation and integration as a function of the relationship between the two dominant poles in the world, this could not prevent the formation of regional integration. Successful experiences in this regard in the eighties and regionalism and regional cooperation in international relations became a substantial and stable principle for all countries around the world.
 
Methodology
The main research method for the importance of the subject is descriptive analytical analysis in the current situation. It has been trying to use the library data, including the important and reliable internal and external resources in the knowledge of international relations, political science, political geography, political economy and political history of Iran to prove the approach of this paper.  The experts in this field try to strengthen the scientific reasoning.
 
Results and Discussion
According to Karl Deutsch, the process of integration in a regional organization is like an assembly line which was shaped during history. This process has a central core, includes one or more of the larger political unit, more advanced, more developed and more powerful. The political and economic capabilities are decisive for the integration. The compatibility to the needs and values of smaller units is necessary to maintain integration. New regionalism, especially after promising movements of European Union was invigorated to this mutation from the nineties. At first, European countries were in the new conditions to begin the integration process. Then, this process was created in Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa. Regionalism in non-European, third world and developing countries did not have the objectives of the integration process in Europe. Even integration in the Asia-Pacific region has not been as well as integration model in Europe. There is not capacity and necessary political will for a deeper integration and political unity in any of these areas.
During this period, Iran has been able to establish eco-regional organization in cooperation with Turkey and Pakistan. But this organization has not been able to achieve economic, political and security aims. We review this issue briefly. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iran, Turkey and Pakistan, as members of the ECO Treaty, tried to affix former member states of this Union and current member of the CIS to this Treaty. They were able to increase the number of countries to ten members. However, despite the importance of regional cooperation more than before in the past decade, ECO Economic Cooperation Treaty with ten members can register much success in its repertoire. In fact, from a critical perspective, Iran, Turkey and Pakistan are the most powerful ECO members. Every member follows its own especial programs. Turkey sees itself as a European country and all its political and economic powers were used for membership in European Union. On the other hand, Pakistan has also a look at its economic relations with East and West. To do its economic resources for coordination with the international economy, it is more important for the country to strengthen cooperation with Echo.
 
Conclusion
Regionalism in international politics refers to the development of economic cooperation, political and cultural ties between governments and other actors in geographic areas. Basically, region is defined as the combination of geographical areas in proximity, the high degree of interaction, institutional framework and a common cultural identity. Accordingly, the Islamic Republic of Iran as an important and influential country in the regional strategic position in the end of the war, especially with the rise of the constructiongovernment. Although there have been some ups and downs, but the country always was faced with the approach of regionalism and regional cooperation and benefiting from capacity and international organizations, it has paid attention to this important issue. Despite these efforts in their desired goals of regionalism approach, it cannot take required advantage. Iran has especial geopolitical situation, because it is located in a location among the crises of Iraq and Afghanistan and in neighborhood situation with the Persian Gulf crisis, Caucasus and Central Asia, South Asia (India and Pakistan) as well as it is a major player in Lebanon challenges and Syria crisis. Thus, the country is active in regional and international security issues. The Islamic Republic of Iran has spent all its efforts and activities in political life for the defense of political independence and to maintain axial discourse. It seems that it cannot introduce itself like the most influential countries in the world as an actor by trade and economic approach in the issue of regionalism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • challenges of regionalism
  • Foreign Policy
  • Islamic Republic of Iran
  • new regionalism
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Regionalism and the challenges of regionalism in Iran's foreign relations

Bahador Zarei

Assistant Prof., Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

Jalil Delshadzad

MA.in Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran

Seyed mehdi Musavi shahidi

MA. In political Geography, Faculty ofGeography, University of Tehran

Seyyed Mahmoud Alavi

MA. in political science orientation of Iranian Studies, Tarbiat Modarres University

Extended Abstract

Introduction

 One of the ways to expand cooperation in today's world is Convergence with the model of regionalism. At the regional and global existing order, each country's national security comes more easily through the efforts of the government and people to obtain and increase national wealth than through efforts to build and collecting hardware facilities and create an atmosphere of insecurity and fear and threat. Historically, from the early seventeenth century, to pursue any conflict that occurring in Europe, Scientific and instrumental elites raised convergence in various forms, including the creation of a federation for peace. Since then it has also been considered international cooperation and convergence by countries and global powers. Although the Cold War era had put regional cooperation and integration as a function of the relationship between the two dominant poles in the world, but this was not prevent the formation of regional integration and successful experiences in this regard in the eighties and regionalism and regional cooperation in international relations became a substantial and stable principle for all countries around the world. The supporters of regionalism say: the homogeneities of the political, cultural, social, economic and geographical along with the other components of unifying, it's possible for Independent governments in the region- even to the extent of a continent-wide- that benefit from its spiritual and material resources with suitable cooperation.

Methodology

 The main research method for the importance of subject in the current situation is descriptive analytical, while enjoying compared in a large scale. It has been trying to use the library data, including the important and reliable internal and external resources in the knowledge of international relations, political science, political Geography, political economy and political history of Iran to prove the approach of this paper, and it is also taken the point of views of experts in this field to strengthen the scientific reasoning.

Results and Discussion

According to Karl Deutsch the process of integration in a regional organization is like an assembly line which was shaped during history. This process has a central core, that Includes one or more of the larger political unit, more advanced, more developed and more powerful.The political and economic capabilities are decisive for integration, and its responsive and compatibility to the needs and values of smaller units is necessary to maintain integration. New regionalism, especially after promising movements of European Union was invigorated to this mutation from the nineties. At first European countries which were in the new conditions, began integration process. Then this process was created in Latin America, Southeast Asia and Africa. Regionalism in the parts of non-European, third world and developing countries, did not the nature and objectives of the integration process in Europe. Even integration in the Asia-Pacific region has not been as well as integration model in Europe. So that, there is not capacity and necessary political will for a deeper integration and political unity in any of these areas.

During this period, Iran has been able to establish eco-regional organization in cooperation with Turkey and Pakistan but this organization has not been able to achieve economic, political and security aims. We review this issue briefly. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iran, Turkey and Pakistan, who are members of the ECO Treaty tried to affix former member states of this Union and current member of the CIS to this Treaty and were able to increase the number of countries to ten members. However, despite the importance of more than before regional cooperation in the past decade, ECO Economic Cooperation Treaty with ten members can register much success in its repertoire Yet. In fact, from a critical perspective, Iran, Turkey and Pakistan are the most powerful eco members, everyone follow its own especial programs. More, Turkey sees itself as a European country and all its political and economic power were used for membership in Europe Union. On the other hand, Pakistan has also a look at its economic relations with East and West, and to equip its economic resources for coordination with the international economy is more important to strengthen cooperation with Echo.

Conclusion

Regionalism in International Politics refers to the development of economic cooperation, political and cultural ties between governments and other actors geographic areas. Basically region is defined as the combination of geographical proximity, the high degree of interaction, institutional framework and a common cultural identity. Accordingly, the Islamic Republic of Iran as an important and influential country in the regional strategic with the end of the war, especially with the rise of the constructiongovernment so far, although there has been some ups and downs, but always with the approach of regionalism and regional cooperation and benefiting from capacity and international organizations, has been attention to this important issue. Despite these efforts in their desired goals of regionalism approach cannot take required advantage. Because Iran because of its geopolitical situation, including is Located at between the crises of Iraq and Afghanistan, and neighborhood to the focus of the Persian Gulf crisis, Caucasus and Central Asia, South Asia (India and Pakistan) and a major player in Lebanon challenges and Syria crisis, in every possible way with regional and international security issues is in direct contact. The Islamic Republic of Iran has spent all its efforts and activities in political life for the defense of political independence and to maintain axial discourse. Hence it can be said; it is only political unit in the Middle East that the beginning is a security unit, then a political unit, and at the end is a mineral, commercial and economic unit. It seems until it cannot introduce itself like the most influential countries in the world as an actor by trade and economic approach in the issue of regionalism (at least the first step in changing the approach and announcement and executive policies) significant results will not achieve.

Key word: Islamic Republic of Iran, Regionalism, The new Regionalism, Challenges of regionalism, Foreign policy