عنوان مقاله [English]
The spatial inequality can be unequal distribution of opportunities and social position. The economic and political importance are often concentrated in urban centers. These centers are also benefitted from a constant inflow of new material, financial and human resources from the peripheries. Government policies can also be biased towards these areas. The spatial dimension of exclusion cannot be entirely separated from its resource and identity dimensions since it is usually culturally and economically influenced by marginalized groups. Spatial inequality has been considered with disparities between rural and urban areas, and also between geographically advantaged and disadvantaged regions. In many countries, such disparities are increasing, partly as a consequence of the uneven impact of trade openness and globalization. While there is efficiency in the concentration of economic activity in urban centers and in coastal districts, the associated regional inequalities are a major contributor to overall inequality. The broad outline of appropriate policy for management of high and rising spatial disparities is also clear. This study improves the levels of development in Guilan counties based on five criteria (Investment and Industrial Activity, Social Inequality - Economic, Population, Roads and Communications, Health and Treatment). For spatial analysis of exclusions, the following criteria are the most important factors of spatial exclusion. This research is to examine the main contributors for spatial analysis and solution for the problem.
For spatial analysis of development deprivations of Guilan Province, statistical population is all the counties of Guilan province and the sample is university professors in geography and regional planning and also the experts in management and planning organization of Guilan province. This is qualitative - quantitative research, functional research in the result, exploration research in goals, description research in explanation and analytical research in terms of relations between variables. For ranking, the Guilan counties use the TOPSIS model by by AHP weighting using questionnaires. The counties of Guilan have been classified in three levels deprived, semi-deprived, and welfare. with cluster analysis by SPSS software. Ultimate Spatial analysis of deprivation is five quality options ineffective, low impact, effective, high-impact and highly effective. Using Delphi, the strategies has been required to reduce the exclusion of development based on factors that were positively identified and prioritized using the AHP strategies.
Results and Discussion
The main reason for the deprivation in development is the disruption in the balance of relationship between the factors of shaping the spatial and human, activities. Population distribution in urban and rural areas of the Guilan province has a special heterogeneity. In one hand, the service sector in the economy of the province and its trend do not mean development in Guilan. The, seasonality of agricultural activities is the most important factor in the problem of immigration and unemployment due to the natural abilities of the province. This can be the highest sustainable production capabilities. Hence, more efficient interaction between agriculture and industries is based on agricultural potential of the counties. This requires establishment of the suitability between supply and demand, production and consumption for all counties of the province. Several factors could explain the high rate of unemployment in the region (Guilan). The interaction between the private sector and the government can provide opportunities for private-sector investment as the most important issue. By comparing the scattering coefficient criteria, this can be concluded that the degree of inequality in selection of the criteria and different from each other. All of the following criteria has been valuated to analyze the spatial deprivation in development from the perspective of experts. Therefore, the most important issues are: (1) the unemployment, (2) investment in the industrial sector, (3) Rural migration control, (4) a four-line main road.
In this study, the counties of the Shaft, Rezvanshahr, Masal, Soumesara and Fooman in the west and Amlash in the east part of Guilan province are identified as the deprived counties.
The most important solutions to reduce spatial deprivation in the province are, "Recognition of the employment opportunities of Anzali Free Zone industrial trade", "opportunities for private sector investment", and "the policy of freedom with dependence on a single product economy". Interaction between academia and industry through science and technology can enable industrial towns for formation of industrial clusters to conduct Anzali Free Zone industrial trade. This can develop balanced and organized activities through the industrial areas of the counties and employment opportunities without migration the counties through spatial deprivation. The main barriers for the development of unbalanced industrial towns of the province are the lack of liquidity and supply of raw materials and machinery.