ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری کاربری آموزشی با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل شهری دربرابر زلزله (مطالعۀ موردی: منطقۀ 6 تهران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس

2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس

چکیده

امروزه یکی از اصول ضروری ایمن‌سازی فضاهای شهری، توجه به عملیاتی­کردن الزامات پدافند غیرعامل شهری به‌منظور کاهش آسیب‌پذیری و ایمن‌سازی آن‌هاست. کاربری‌های آموزشی، یکی از کاربری‌های عمومی در نظام کاربری اراضی شهری است که مدیریت ایمنی و توجه به الزامات پدافندی آن، به­دلیل تولید سفر بالا و تراکم جمعیتی در ساعات مشخص و گاهی دائم، بسیار حائز اهمیت است. پژوهش حاضر، در زمینۀ ارزیابی آسیب‌پذیری کاربری‌های آموزشی دربرابر زلزله با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل شهری در منطقة 6 تهران است که در قالب مطالعات فضایی- مکانی و با اجرای مدل تحلیلی در سه گام انجام شد. ابتدا شناسایی و دسته‌بندی اصول و الزامات پدافند غیرعامل در سه گروه پارامترهای جمعیتی، سازه‌ای و مکانی صورت گرفت و با استفاده از ابزار پرسشنامه و نظرسنجی کارشناسی، اولویت‌های اصول پدافند غیرعامل در ارتباط با فضاهای آموزشی مشخص شد. در ادامه، بر پایة فرایند تحلیل شبکه‌ای، تعیین وزن هریک از معیارها انجام گرفت. وزن حاصل از مدل ANP، در محیط نرم‌افزار ArcGIS بر لایه‌های مکانی منطقه اعمال شد. نتایج اجرای مدل نشان داد که از نظر شاخص‌های سازه‌ای، بیش از 55 درصد واحدهای آموزشی منطقه، در گروه سازه‌هایی با میزان آسیب‌پذیری زیاد قرار می­گیرند و از نظر شاخص‌های جمعیتی، در 60 درصد واحدهای آموزشی درصورت وقوع زلزله میزان آسیب‌پذیری زیاد است. از لحاظ شاخص‌های مکانی، بیش از 75 درصد فضاهای آموزشی، با چند نوع کاربری ناسازگار همجوار هستند و بیشترین آسیب‌پذیری را دارند. به‌طورکلی، نتایج حاصل از روی­هم‌گذاری لایه‌ها نشان داد بیش از 67 درصد واحدهای آموزشی محدوده در پهنه‌های آسیب‌پذیر واقع شده‌اند و میزان آسیب‌پذیری واحدهای آموزشی در این پهنه‌ها بسیار بالاست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Vulnerability Assessment of educational land use with the approach of civil defense against earthquakes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Meshkini 1
  • Morteza Shabani 2
  • Abdolhamid Neshat 2
چکیده [English]

Vulnerability Assessment of educational land use with the approach of civil defense against earthquakes
Abstract
One of the main challenges in urban settlement regulations is vulnerability of susceptible and important places in relation with environmental crisis and their low safety. Basic principle to build a safe place is considering urban passive defense to reduce susceptibility and making them safe. Educational land uses are specific type of land uses due to their high potential to cause a lot of travels and large population density for at least some hours a day. This research tries to model educational land uses risk against earthquake considering passive defense at district 6 in Tehran. At first step passive defense priorities in relation with educational centers were determined through a questionnaire. Defined indices were classified in 3 groups as demographic, structural and spatial. Then an analytical model based on Analytical Network Process (ANP) was applied and weight of each criteria and sub-criteria were determined. Resulting weights from ANP and ArcGIS were implemented over spatial layers. The results indicated that from structural point of view, more than 55% of educational centers classified among high vulnerable structures. Considering demographic index, 60% of educational centers grouped as susceptible places which their vulnerability will increase when earthquake occurs. With respect to spatial index, more than 75% of educational centers are neighboring to some unrelated land uses which have high vulnerability. Generally the results of overlaying different layers showed that over 67% of educational centers located at vulnerable areas.

Introduction
Cities as places of gathering human beings are exposed to natural disasters and measures necessary to reduce the effects of these disasters occur. Attention to the operational requirements of passive defense of the city to secure important and sensitive urban areas is one of the essential principles of urban spaces is secure. Some of nonresidential land uses sensitive and decisive role in the safety of urban spaces.
Cities have placed inside the equipment and tools with different kinds of used including residential, commercial, service, educational and hygienic and each use are related to a population, which will be affected due to occurrence of natural events causing destruction of life organization and human and financial hazards and kind of crisis. The education used is recognized as are of the special uses in urban uses of lands. Safety management of the applications according to the requirements of defense applications due to the high density of population in the hour’s specified travel, and sometimes permanent, is very important. Analysis of educational spaces and how to locate their position in terms of health, safety and security, access, and physical structures, social factors, economic and cultural life can help us in the operational requirements of passive defense to secure the urban areas and improve the quality of risk management applications training to help earthquake. The study tries to target the requirements of passive defense and urban operations training applications immunization against earthquake risk modeling earthquake risk management and educational applications of passive defense is urban.

Method of Research
The purpose of this research, risk modeling approach to educational uses passive defense against earthquakes in district 6 of Tehran. In this study, first principles and requirements of passive defense by referring to the study of scientific and literature were obtained. Then priorities of passive defense in relation to the educational use of the study area was determined using a questionnaire to 30 experts. Then Analytical Network Process (ANP) method was defined analytical model based on the weight of each of the sub parameters were determined using Super Decision. Specific weight of ANP model was applied on the layers in place. Finally, specific weights in Arc 10.2 GIS software to each of the criteria applied layers and the combination of layers, final drawings in raster GIS was obtained.

Results and Discussion
Results of risk modeling educational uses of passive defense against earthquakes and the operational requirements of the urban area according to the parameters and criteria set and Analysis in ArcGIS software showed that more than 55% of the structural characteristics of education in the region are structures with high vulnerability. In terms of demographic factors, 60% of educational units in which they are learning in their vulnerability in case of earthquake is high. In terms of indices, where more than 75 percent of educational spaces with a few neighboring incompatible land use and vulnerability are highest. Also, about 73% of educational units to damage caused by obstruction and delay in the relief passages are the victims. Studies based on field observations show that although about 78% of the educational centers to green spaces are well positioned in locating educational centers, public health in more than 78 percent of the standards of Municipalize had not been observed neighborhood is. The overall results showed that more than 67% of the overlay layers vulnerable zones located in the area of education and training in the area of high vulnerability.
Conclusion
In fact, one of the most important factors in reducing losses of earthquake preparation is a society for dealing with earthquakes. Earthquake preparedness to deal with various aspects and possible use of facilities planning, urban design and planning so that the least damage to them to be during an earthquake. Urban planning and urban design to applications for layout and design of the first applications to secure settlements from the earthquake, Necessary conditions for the implementation of better facilitate crisis management plan because of physical damage, dysfunction and loss of lives of earthquake and It is necessary to provide for the reduction of hazards and create the necessary readiness of people to deal with this kind of disaster planning should be taken.
Keyword
Risk, Passive defense, Educational land use, Analytical Network Process (ANP), Tehran

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vulnerability
  • Passive Defense
  • Educational land use
  • Analytical Network Process
  • Tehran
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