نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Globalization is a process in economic, cultural, political, social and technology aspects. All societies, more or less in the third millennium, are changed or ready to be changed. In the process, many of the concepts and variables such as government, sovereignty, strength, authority, balance of power, collective security, political and economic independence, etc., are significantly evolving in the process. Globalization in the Persian Gulf just promotes a Western lifestyle and consumer products of industrialized countries. Transnational and multinational corporations are trying by advertising tool to penetrate local markets. Impacts of globalization on the Arabic countries of the Persian Gulf, in many areas, especially in field of the cultural aspects, are faced with a contradiction. The conflict is rooted in the contradictory nature of globalization on cultural and social dimension.
This research, because of importance of the issue, is mainly based on descriptive and analytical methods. As part of the findings in this study, the descriptive analytical method can be useful for the description, the expression of objective events, developments and examination of the Persian Gulf region. Much of the research is to collect qualitative data and content analysis by taking advantage of the analytical method. In this study, we tried to gather library information including external resources in the areas of globalization and its impacts on the Persian Gulf, Geopolitics, International Relations and the studies about Persian Gulf. We have also widely used the internal resources of specialists and experts in this field.
Results and Discussion
The new role of the Persian Gulf in the last century, in addition to the continued development of the West, plays an important role in international and strategic equations and the security of the region with the development of Asian powers. Development of Asian countries in the globalization process and the transfer of capital, technology and markets send each kind of facility. This process can be on the issues such as energy security, trade in goods, technology, and labor exchange. The overall pace of economic growth is now concentrated on the area of the Pacific and the Indian Ocean. Today the claim is close to the accuracy of economic growth and development of the world. The West must be looking for the relationship and economic exchange with Asia.
In this context, we are to examine the mutual dependence between the flow of energy from the Persian Gulf to Asia which adds the geo-economic value for Asia and the West in the age of globalization. Apart from regional issues, e.g., the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and its consequences, as well as territorial and border disputes, there are many widespread global issues such as individual freedoms, respect for human rights, relying on the government based on law, free elections and political participation.
From this perspective, the legitimacy of political power is not only limited to legality and compliance of the dominant values. It also extends the relationship between government and self-government. In this regard, it is said that the crisis of legitimacy emerged in a situation when a system controls the structures of society unilaterally and social and cultural identity of citizens under certain dominated (tool) and stopped production and fertility.
Among the regions of the world, the Persian Gulf region, the symbol of the traditional undemocratic regime, called the leaders to strongly influence the political consequences of globalization on the basis of their governance. The types of political regimes of the countries of the Arabic region, in traditional closed kingdom, were not exposed to wide cultural and political modernization. The global policy for the countries of the Persian Gulf has made similar threats. This can push it in different areas and cause a series of behavioral changes among the rulers and the people of this region.
The conditions governing the Persian Gulf region are making these countries as the most important states in air transportation, trade finance, central banks, international branches, transfer of technology, the centers of knowledge production and lucrative market selling to Asian, European, and American regions. They are also becoming a good place to exchange educated work force. In other words, the economies of the region are rapidly connecting to the global economy.
The process of globalization, from a political perspective, had the least influence on the Persian Gulf region. People of the region through political and legal pressures as well as internal and international situations have experienced the least changes in transition, from the beginning of the twenty-first century. For the first time in the history of the formation of government, they achieve minimal political rights.
In the recent decades, in parallel with economic and social changes, most countries in the Persian Gulf, in the light of the forces of globalization, have experienced changes in terms of culture and consequently many social and cultural fault-lines and conflicts have emerged. Nationalism, pan-Arab, socialism, pro-democracy and Islam are the powerful social movements in the Persian Gulf region. Persian Gulf region has been due to the emergence of Islamist forces relative to any other region in the world. Muslim identity is a force in this region. A great intellectual and practical capacity to deal with the political and social leaders influences the West.
26. Glassner, M. I. and Blij, H. J., 1989, Systematic Political Geography, prees, New York.
45. Eil, Rajers, 1994, Oil and Persian Gulf Security, Translated by: Jamshid Zangana, Proceedings of the Fourth Seminar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tehran.