عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The environmental health conditions faced by people are largely affected by the location and organization of the site where they obliged to live in the days, weeks or months after a disaster. Sheltering which is a priority for relief organizations, denotes the activity of staying in a place aftermath a disaster where daily routines are suspended. Shelter is one of the primary needs of the affected people in the post-disaster phase. Similar to the other reconstruction and rehabilitation processes, settlement of the affected people should be undertaken within a long-term strategy. This strategy could be different in various disasters and communities. In an ideal type which is applied in the United States, it includes four phases. These are emergency sheltering, temporary sheltering, temporary housing and permanent housing. Emergency shelters are generally for one or a couple of days after the event. This situation usually does not need extensive preparation of food or other services and may be a public shelter, motel, hotel room, friend’s house, tent, trailer, camper, or a plastic sheet. Temporary shelters are for longer periods after a disaster that is few weeks, and can be tent, camp or a public mass shelter. Finally, housing which could be divided into temporary or permanent phases; denotes the return to normal daily activities. Shelter strategy in some communities differs from this and comprises three phases. Here emergency sheltering is not limited to one or a couple of days and may take several weeks. It is needed to have various sheltering programs in place. They could be activated in different situations depending on the types of damages and available resources. If not planned, choosing proper site for emergency or temporary shelters will be arranged within a limited time after a disaster. Moreover, lack of proper criteria for site selection can be led to undesirable consequences or people deny accepting the site. Some consequences include subsequent secondary disasters, lack of safety, cultural or climatic inappropriateness, social problems, delays linked to the procurement of shelters, finding sites, and lack of organizational services. Some available texts such as the Sphere project present the minimum standards of sheltering in disasters. But the question is “which criteria can be applied for site selection of emergency or temporary shelters in an earthquake affected area?” so the assessment of Salmas earthquake (1930), Lar (1960), Buin Zahra (1962), Rudbar and Manjil (1960), earthquake (2003) act. Characterized that Iranian cities have not integrate planning to in the context of dealing with potential crises.
study showed that several factors affect the Emergency Settlement Site Selections The natural dimension (the distance from the river, away from faults), The performance dimensions (distance from volatile sources such as high voltage, Privacy highways, etc.), since access (distance from the fire departments, educational, health, security, etc.), Security (such as maintaining ownership, protect property, ensure permanent settlements, etc.) and finally management measures (management of rescue, Refugee operations, Aid to refugees, providing space for health services, providing the opportunity to exploit the camps and etc.) Most play an effective role on Emergency Settlement Site Selections.
The current study aims at Assess Factors Affecting Emergency Settlement Site Selections, a Case Study of Urmia City. Research method is documentary and survey. According to the urmia’s master plan, firstly access networks, population density, fire station and etc., Based on field observations was marked on the map. Then urban experts were asked to identify their priorities on the basis of paired comparisons. Ultimately, proper Strategies have been recommended for the Assess Factors Affecting Emergency Settlement Site Selections, a Case Study of Urmia City. The study population was estimated using Morgan 45 and to analyze data TOPSIS model has been employed. According to gathered data, Emergency Settlement Site Selections Factors was prioritized.
Results and discussion:
Land-use planning is the general term used for a branch of urban planning encompassing various disciplines which seek to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts. Governments use land-use planning to manage the development of land within their jurisdictions. In doing so, the governmental unit can plan for the needs of the community while safeguarding natural resources. To this end, it is the systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternatives for land use, and economic and social conditions in order to select and adopt the best land-use options. Often one element of a comprehensive plan, a land-use plan provides a vision for the future possibilities of development in neighborhoods, cities, or any defined planning area. One of the most important issues of land use is Emergency Settlement Site Selections. Shelter is a critical determinant for survival in the initial stages of a disaster. Beyond survival, shelter is necessary to provide security and personal safety, protection from the climate and enhanced resistance to ill health and disease. It is also important for human dignity and to sustain family and community life as far as possible in difficult circumstances. Research findings show that Natural, access, management, security and Performance factors, respectively ranked first (0.102- weighted average), second (0.087- weighted average), third (0.075- weighted average), fourth (0.068- weighted average) and fifth (0.061- weighted average). According to the findings, some strategies have been recommended, which they need the serious care of urban managers and planners in the Uremia.
The results of this study showed that several factors affect the Emergency Settlement Site Selections The natural dimension (the distance from the river, away from faults), The performance dimensions (distance from volatile sources such as high voltage, Privacy highways, etc.), since access (distance from the fire departments, educational, health, security, etc.), Security (such as maintaining ownership, protect property, ensure permanent settlements, etc.) and finally management measures (management of rescue, Refugee operations, Aid to refugees, providing space for health services, providing the opportunity to exploit the camps and etc.) Most play an effective role on Emergency Settlement Site Selections.
غفوری آشتیانی، محسن، 1999، عملیات نجات و بازسازی در زلزلههای اخیر ایران، مجلۀ بینالمللی پیشگیری از بحران و مدیریت،سال هشتم، شمارة 1.